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Intended for publication^ by the same Avihor^ 

' THE FALL OF if AN; ^ 


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Scriptural & philosophical 






A Dedicatory Epistle to Mr. Charles Forbes BucHANy 
Wherein is given the character of a 

A HETERODOX and an orthodox FREACHERy 

By peter BUCHAN, 

The creature itself also shall be delivered from the bon-^age 
•f corruption into the glorious liberty of the sons of God. 

Rom. VIII. 21. 

IpeterieaH t 


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' 7 

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jPmoem, -^ .^ ..^ „^ .^5 

Dedicatory Epistle to Mr, Charles Forbes Buckan, 'wherein 
is given rides Jbr the government of, himself, his secular 
and religious concerns^ xvhat characters to guard a^nst, 
particularly those of pettifogging lawyers^ quack doctors, 
and heterodox preachers^ SfC. •-«- •.-^7 

Scriptural and Philosophical arguments thai brutes have sotds, 

and that their souls are immortal, -^ ..^13 

Nature of the soul, ^.^ «^ ..^ -^^ 14 

Animals, not moral agents, «-^ .^16 

Brutes^ part of God *s creation and care, „,^ .,^18 

made previous to man, ..^ ..^19 

The Messiah indebted to the beasts for his first cradle, ^ 

Brute$9 liable to Ute miseries of this life, — ..-^ ib* 

■ Remembered by God in his covenant with Noah, 21 

Man is enjoined to show lenity to the brutes, -^ 22 

Brutes, once mans companions in Paradise, —.m ..«« 24 

Supposition regarding the new heaven and the new earth, . 29 

, Brutes form a link between the Creator and the creature, 30 

: Those happy on earth. not always happy hereafter, 34 

; Variety, necessary to marHs happiness, •««. ».^ 36 

Bqrutes, not void of reason, — -.^ .^^ 37 

Bougeant. asserts that brutes are animated by devils, ~— 39 

Abstract of the Cartesian system, „^ •—•41 

Bougeant' s arguments in favour of his system, ' ,«i- 43 

Changes that took place on the earth n/ier the fall, •^^ 56 

Catise of the pain and death of brutes, ^.^ — 67 

Savage nature of brutes accounted for, .— r— 50 

Brutes, not destitute of reason and reflection, —• 59 

Account of the attachment of a tjoater rpaniel to its master, 61 

rf a poor tailor and his dog, --«. ..•^ 64 

of Sabinus and his dog, -^ -— 65 

— — — of a priest and his dog, •.-• •-^ 66 

Elephant's attachment to his master, --^ •-,^67 

— — — sense of pride, ^.^ -^ -^ ^g 

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Lisfancex of the natural affection of brutes to their young, 68 

iSp'rit of sociality in the brute creatipn, -^ 71 

Anecdotes of a raven and Neiufoundland dog^p ^^^ 73 

Attachment between incongruous animals, «»« 74 

Account of Sir Henry Lee and his dog, m^ 11 

Language of brutes proved, *— m^ ,m^ IS 

Instance of the power of memory in storks, -^ 81 

Account of Colonel O* Kelly s wonderful parrot, «^ 82 

Lord Karnes, wrong in his idea of brutes, „.^ 85 

Carnivorous and graminivorous animals living together, 86 

Account of Cowpers hares, -^ -^ ».^ 88 

■ of the migration of the swallows, •««. 94 

Man, indebted to the brutes for many useful discoveries, 97 

Prescience of brutes regarding the tveather, Sfc. -.^ 98 

Anecdotes of a gentleman travellings -^ «-^ 99 

— of Louis XL of France and the collier* s ass, lOX 

Account of a learned pig in Bartholomew Jair, ^,^ 103 

— — — of a pig that was broke in to ^nd game, --^ 104 
Additional proofs that brutes have souls, and that they are 

immortal, ..^ ..^^ .^^ ..^ 107 

Instance of memory in the horse, -^ «.«« 108 
Matter, incapable of thinking, ~— -^109 

Remarks on the impropriety of ministers hunting, -«» 110 

Comparison between the bodies of men and of brutes, 113 

Opinion of Bonaparte regarding; animals, -^ 114 

Knowledge and prudence of brutes, -^ -^^ 115 

Le Clerc's opinion of the soul of brutes, •-- -—. 117 
Remarks on different texts of scripture, and the word 

fSBiSH rightly explained, j,^ •«« ««m. 118 

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During my residence in London, (where 
the greater part of the following sheets was 
written,) I was subject to very indifferent 
health ; which, to avoid, I frequented as much 
as possible all the public places in the vicinity 
of London,and other popular cities andtowns 
of England. On my way to and from these 
places, my feelings were often shocked to see 
many of the most useful, noble, but defence- 
less animals, patiently suffering under the 
most rigorous severity of a tyrannical, cruel, 
and merciless waggoner, carman, or coach- 
man ; while every limb,and every muscle wete 
strained to obey the imperitive,but unreason- 
able demands of their brutish oppressor.— 
H<ow to ameliorate their sufferings 1 was at a 
loss to know: — Their pain gave me pain, and 
my mind entered into the state of their slavery 
with all the zeal in my power. Surely, I 
thought, if these noble animals, which are 
^p useful to mankind, should rise in judg- 
ment against their inhuman masters, what 
must be the consequence to them in an after 
world. Full of these imaginations, I began 
seriously to think of the matter, and to reflect 
on the many acts of kindess and gratitude I 
have, with many others, experienced from the 
brute creation. This gave rise to my first 
conception of their having souls, and of their 
souls being immortal. Since that time^ Ihave 

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found many passajres of scripture to sanction 
and confirm my belief ;also,ni any learned and 
respiectable men of my opinion, from whose 
works I have occasionally given extracts, aK 
tiiough not marked with inverted commas: 
For which reason, in the work, I have used 
the plural pronoun We. 

My most ardent desire is, therefore, that it 
may have the desired effect of making many 
converts to my opinion, so as the misery to 
whicli the brutes is daily made subject, may 
be lessened thereby. Our wise legislature has 
passed an act for the punishment of cruelty 
to animals ; but, I am sorry to say, it is so sel- 
dom enforced upon the guilty culprits, as to 
leave any solid or lasting. impression. 

In the Dedicatory Epistle to my son, t 
flatter myself their will be found many things 
useful to the young and rising generation, if 
duly attended to. The characters whom he 
is requested to guard against, are but a too 
plentiful crop in the world, like the young 
pelicans in the wilderness, feeding on the 
blood of their parents. Although the char- 
acters alluded to be copied, in a great measure, 
from real life, no private person in particular 
is aimed at; so that if any thmk themselves^ 
aggrieved,and are in reality theguilty persons^ 
1 haveno objections to. their letting the public 
know,that they may also guard againtjt them.. 

The Authok. 

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My Dear Son, 

\ OUR unwearied attention to the cause of truth, your 
indefatigable thirst after knowledge, and the rapid progress you 
have made in your education, with other good qualities you pos- 
sess, induce me to select you frona among your brothers, and 
from the world, as the most proper person to whom I shall 
Dedicate the following work on Philanthropy. 

In this Epistle,! also intend giving you a few parental advices, 
of directions, whereby you may govern yourself, your secular 
mid religious concerns, in your journey through life. — You have 
not yet attained to that age which is generally tainted with the 
sins and follies of youth ; nor have you had that experience 
necessary to teach you to shun them ; nor to gu^rd against the 
deceit, the ingratitude, and tyranny of a world of envy, ofsor^ 
row, and of pain ; which will render the few following hints 
m'ore useful and acceptable to you, as they are founded on the 
scrutiny of many years' carefid observation. 

In the first place, I shall give you a summary account of 
your birth and ancestors, (your parentage, for the two last ge- 
nerations, you know.) Your christian name, Charles Forbes, 
was given you at your baptism by the late Rev. Dr. George . 
Moir, as a testimony of my respect for a gentleman of that 
name. Your surname, Buch an, is taken from the name of the 
district where you were born, and which was once a county 
oyer which an earl presided. The present David Steuart 
Erskine, with whom I have the honour of being acquainted, 
enjoys that title. 

In the various histories and chronicles of Scotland, Sec. that 
I have read, I have found this name spelt no less than eighteen 

different ways. To give you a list of the whole, would be but 

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spending time to gratify a curiosity of so little importance ta 
you,as I shall decline it for the present ; suffice it to ko^w that» 
one of the ancient ways is Buchqvhane; but the most mod« 
crn is J?MScAfl«, which signifies^ in- the ianguage:Of the Gault^^ 
(f payer of tribute of oxen and sheep, with which, (at the' time*' 
iu got its name,) it abounded. 

Cumyn was the original of youf SUTname ; and from Cumyn, 
earl of Buchan, you are lineally descended. As it is but right 
you should know how this change was brought^ about, it^was 
as follows ; — In the time of the civil commotion, and dispute 
which happened between John Baliol and Robert Bruce, fal* 
the crown of Scotland,and which kept the nobility in si ferment, 
the Cuniyns Were a powerful people, and had great interest and* 
influence o\&[ the principal families of that nation, and also 
witli Edward, king of England ; so that John, commbkly called 
the red Cumyn, being aided and assisted with his relations, the 
flower of the Scottish noblemen, and having encouragemeilt 
from Edward, flattered himself with becoming king of Scotland, 
a& being heir to Donald Bane, and cousin-german to John Ba- 
liol. Various attempts were made for the accomplishment of^' 
this purpose, but they were always, by some means or another, ' 
frustrated. The last attempt was at the battle of Inverurie, 
where he measured swords with king Robert Bruce,was defeat- 
ed, and afterwards killed by him m th^ Franciscans Church of 
Dumfries in the year 1306. His lands and estates, of course, 
were confiscated to the king, who bestowed them upon others 
whom he considered more deserving of them. To cover this, 
and some of the former guilt, the family changed their name 
of Cumjm to that of their designation and title, Buchan, which 
years brought into use. 

The first of the race, and descendants orCumyn, earl of Bu- 
chan, who had returned from England, (whither they went af^ 
ter the discomflture with Bruce,) that I can read of, and who 
uses the name publicly, was a colonel Buchan, who resided for 
sometime in the parish of Rathen, where he had his seat. This 
colonel Buckan you will find mentioned in the Cloud of Wit- 
nesjEteSy as one of the persecutors of the poor and oppressed 
Covenantors, in the time of the impious Charles the second. > 
From this family, on the father's side, you are descended. And 
from that ancient and most respectable family of ;^Drum, o» 

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the motfier's sidi*; your great- grtnd-mother's iiame^ I^Dgu 

^as^gfiret Irvine ^ grand-daughter to Irvine. Esq. of Drum,^^ 

This 18 but a short sketch ofyour pedigree,but it is iufficief it for^ 
the present, as you can make yourself more acquainted with it f 
when you. come io those years of wisdom, in which you wtll'bie* 
e<msultirig the records of your country* I do not give ydii*' 
tkis information to raise your vanity above your fellows, but 
that you may walk worthy of your noble descent, be an honour- 
to the families from whicii you have sprung, the name you bear, 
and to the country to which you belong. Many become intoler- " 
able to society, and to the company in which they are placed, 
by vainly boasting of their ancestors, (which is oflen all they 
have to boast of,) their fU-suited fVivoiitieA', and disgusting ego- 
tism. Be not therefore, like them, my dear Charles, but ra- 
ther endeavour to be the first of an honourable race than the 
last of an ancient. 

In all your transactions and dealings with the world, be guid- 
ed by the laws of justice, and actuated by the principles of 
honour. Do unto every miui) a$ you expect, or would wish* 
him to do unto you in the same situation. Flattery, to a weak- 
minded and choleric man, is like pouring oil upon the ruffled 
waves of the fiery ocean, it smooths and allays the fury of the 
clouded brow : but although this is often practised by the mean 
and selfidh to gain their private ends, I would not, by any ! 
means, have you guilty of such silly devices; besides, it is ' 
taking advantage of an unguarded hour : for sonie, by means 
of having their vanity flattered, could be made to do any thing. 
Although you may not always be successful in the world,never - 
repine ; — the race is not always to the swift;, nor the battle to * 
the strong. It is the common lot of most men, at some period 
or other of their lives, to be ship-wrecked in their passage 
through, life ; to run on the rocks of disappomtment, and be 
dashed to and frb on the sands of adversity, by the relentless 
waves of despair. Yet often a twhikling ray of hope darts thro' 
the thickened gloom when least expected, and brightens the 
darkened nighty and gladens the cheerless mind. Adversity 
is a school wherein one may learn much ; ftjr in it in one day 
more wisdom is to hie got than in twenty in the school of for- 
tune ; but its frowfts, however, are hard to be borne. The fa* - 
vou£9 of fortune are not always to be courted ; for, like the sting 

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of the asp, it tickles so as to make one laugh, till the poisoit . 
by little and little gets to the heart, and then it pains more than 
eyer it delighted. Be ye then like the righteous Agur, Who ' 
prayed thus, Prov. xxx. 8 & 9, Give me neither poverty nor ^ 
rjphes ; feed me with food convenient for me : lest I be futt, 
and deny thee, and say, Who is the Lord? or lest I be poor, ^ 
and steal, and take the name of my God in vain* Also, follow 
the exampie of the indefatigable and praise-worthy Paul, Mho,. * 
in whatsoever state he was in, had therewith learned to be con- ; 
tent. Diogenes, although a heathen, had more contertment 
in his tub which sheltered him from the injuries of the weather, 
and with his wooden dish to eat and drink in, than Alexander 
had with the comforts of half the world. 

As you approach the verge of life, you will find the road, 
in may places, strewed with, thorns and briers; yet, on these 
briers are to be found roses of inestimable value; because, if 
plucked with the hand of piety, like Aaron's rod, their frag- 
rance and beauty ^wiil swallow up every other evil that may fall 
in the way. There are also two paths which you will observe 
in the commencement of your journey, — the path of virtue, 
and the path of vice. The one leadeth to corruptible pleasures 
here, the other to incorruptible hereafter. Choose ye, there- 
fore, before your sun be clouded, the path of virtue, and walk, 
ye tiierein : for, as you are but a probationer here on earth, 
there are many temptations to which you will be liable; 
but endeavour to shun those that lead to the gates of death and 
destruction. The most besetting sins that attend youth in their 
first entrance on the stage of the world, are sabbath-hreaJcing^ 
drinking^ and had company, particularly that of women. 

You are desired to remember the sabbath-day, and to keep, 
it holy. This can only be done by refraining from pursuing 
your own pleasures ; seeking the communion and fellowship of^ 
God in prayer ; walking with him in faith, and praising him for 
the bountiful mercies which you are daily permitted to receive 
at his hand. That want of reverence and holy respect which, 
is due to the sabbath, has sunk many one in perdition, who 
would otherwise have been good and useful members in society* 

Drinking^ i. e. to excess, is also a vice of considerable mag- 
nitude, which 1 wish you by all means to avoid ; for it is not' 
only an evil pf itself in wasting your substance, perhaps many 

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years' hard-earned jgettings; robbing y<«!i'6f yo«r health, ^W 
most precious temporal blessing we enjoy under heaven, but ' 
leaves you a prey to every other temptation ^nd evil. The an- 
cient Greeks used to punish crimes committed ii^hen drunk with ' 
dpuble severity. A curious story is thus told of a young maa 
and the devil. The young man had made a contract with the- 
devil, to comply with one of three request^' he should mako' 
him, vi^. — Murder his father, debauch his own sister, or gel- 
drunk.' The young man choose the last, as by far the least 
shocking ; but when he had got drunk, the ^evil took that op- 
portunity of tempting him (which till he was drunk he never 
cgjuld effectually do.) to commit both the other. Thus he was 
di^wn into commit all the devil wanted; whereas if either of 
the other had been his choice, he would probdi)ly have escape ' 
so complicated a guilt. 

The company of bad women is also very pemitious to the 
morals of youth ; and may be compared to a ship richly laden 
wrecking in the harbour before ever she put to sea. Solomon 
was aware of this, which made him urge his son so strongly to 
beware of the alluring smiles of harlots. He who gives hii^self 
up to their embraces, may be said to renonnce hi^God andiisi 
SSiviour ": and he who lives without God in the worfd, must be 
in a hopless condition. When you visit them, you must not 
go empty-handed ; a present must bethe harbinger of your wel- 
come — Your business neglected to serve them — Expences in- 
curred to please them— Your friend sacrififced to their whim— i 
Vour self no longer your own master, but a slave to the dupe 
of their ambition, and all to gratify the hypocritical smiles and 
fdir blandishments of one who is at heart your professed, tho*' 
not open enemy; and will, IJke the deceitful Delilah, shake off' 
the mask in the end. Think of this, my dear Charles, and go 
not within the portals of their gates. Jerome tells a story oP 
a' Christian soldier, whom, when the pretor could not by anyi 
torments remove from Christianity, he commanded him to be 
laid on abed in a pleasant garden, among the flourishing^ an^ 
fragrant flowers ; which done, all others withdrawing, a most^ 
beautiful harlot came to hira,and used all' her art to destroy his* 

fij;^ but the Christian soldier, being filled with theroyai giftC 
the spirit, bit off his tongue with h^ teeth', ^nd^pk it inher* 
&ce as she was tempting him, and so got the victory over air 

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temptations. Better to go thus halt and mamf iQtoheavcn» thim 
with all the limbs and faculties entire into hell. 

When I wish you to guard against the . enticements of bad 
women, I do not mean women in general; nor that yoa 
•hould abandon the company of all the sex without distinction^ 
to live a life of celibacy. Man's happiness here, were it not 
f^r the sweet society of angelic woman, would be but formal 
and dull. 

Woman, man's chiefest good, by heaven design'd 
To glad the heart, and humanize the mind; 
To sooih each angry care, abate the strife. 
And lull the passions as we walk through life. 
Adam, the first of men, preferred banishment, exile, and aU 
their attendant miseries, in the company of his consort 
£ve, to Paradise and all its enjoyments without her. 

The bitter sweat in drops shed from his manly brow 
When first he brake the flow'ry earth, to gain them bread: 
And 'neath the burning sun he toiFd till ev'ningtide: 
Nor Eden's plains e'er sought to view,nor cooling shade 
of Paradise, where wont to rove * mong flow'rets green; 
Or 'neath'the silv'ry surface of the glassy lake, 
(A form as fair as man e'er bore in Greecian marble,) 
At noon day's heat when all was still as sumrner night 
Would plunge his parched limbs, refreshment sweet he 

Thus sufier'd he ; without repining at his loss* 

I have now given you an outline of those snares that prey 
upon the unwary and unguarded youth in their outset in life,, 
and hope you will benefit thereby. 

The next things I shall offer to your consideration are, the 
choice o£ companions and amusements^ on which depend great' 
part of your happiness. Never go to a gaming-table nor ale-* 
house to seek a companion or friend. Those that frequent^ 
gaming-houses mind me much on fiocks of ravens, they only 
meet to pick the carcase of some unfortunate victim that has 
ffJlen a prey to their devouring talons. In an alehouse, thougl^ 
you see a company of bacchanalian topers friendly ^t, who» 
in the midst of their jollity, when their hearts are warmed wit!? 
wine ; their heads light with strong drink ; their boon compan-l 

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^B throwing tlie sptrlcling gla«8 around their heads with loud 
applause, and flashes of ill-timed wit; falling from their chairs 
in the midst of their covenant-making. Still, all these are but 
for the moiiient ; to-morrow brings a racking conscience, an 
aching head, hollow eyes, and often an empty purse. These 
are a few of Bacchus^s attendants, which never fail sooner or 
latter, to plunge her most favourite voteries in an abyss of woe. 
Seek ye then the company of the wise and prudent, for Solo- 
mon says. He that walketh with the wise shall be wise, but a 
companion of fools shall be destroyed. One of the late lords 
Mayor of London, mentions a young man that he knew, who 
was taken from school to sit in the House of Commons, and who 
had little or no knowledge from books, and as little from the 
experience of age; yet, by associating himself with the wi«e, 
«oon became the best speaker, and the wonder of the house. 
You would do well to be wary in the choice of a companion ; 
for, if it be a bad one, although innocent yourself, by being 
found in the company of the guilty, you may share the fate of 
the poor stork who was found among the cranes. Therefore, 
never make a companion of a sabbath -breaker, a liar, a swear- 
er, a drunkard, a gambler, a thief, nor in short, any that makes 
a mock at sin, or scotFs at religion; such as an athiest or deist. 
For he who denies his God, or his Saviour, is not fit to be trust- 
ed.-:— He is worse than an infidel. The sin of ingratitude, I 
count no better than the sin against the Holy (?host.^The 
one is ascribing to the power of the devil what is done by the 
power of the Holy Spirit. — The other is denying the existence 
o^a God and of a Saviour altogether.Many theistn,! am sorry to 
tay,in their works do the same. Ke who can read the sorrowful 
life and sufferings, — the privations and miseries, — the bloody 
sweats and dying agonies of a crucified Redeemer, without big 
heart burning within him for love and gratitude, is surely not 
a proper companion for you. He who can deny a Saviour 
who has willingly become the object of divine wrath, — suffered 
these things — yhedhis precious blood on mount Calvary— giv- 
en his life a ransoiu — his body a sacrifice, — and still intercedes 
ibr hiiu, cannot expect a place in those mansions which he has 
gpne to prf'pare lor tiio^e that love him. EiKU-avour then to 
«eltct such as you ♦! I r^: re vi^alkiPg in the wcy that leadeth 
Imio life ctemai, thut j ou may e li^air company wiien time 

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filMJlkli«^ii« m0re. • I^go, uxt aneientAkig of the Drarea, w^ 

pimiking a^tate^ly feast, appointed hi^^ipbles, at that time Pag* 
^tmSf^tQ sit in the YwAl below, and commanded certain^oor Chris- 
ntfan^ to- be- brought ,up into his presence-chamber, to sit wi(h 
^JH^tat bia4i^e,.to eatand drink of his kingly cheer, at which 
fmrn^y v^nderiQg,lie.fiaid,he accounted Chri8tiaps,though never 
.^•opieor, a greater oroanient to his table, and more worthy ^f 
-liisHC6iBpanyi,.yian the greatest peers unconverted to the Chrjs- 
/rtiaR fakh ; .Ibr when these Blight be thrust down to hell, those 
(>iai%htrbe his consorts and fellow princes in heaven. 

'.Regarding your amusements^ let them be harmless, and free 
rtfi^ib those evils which corrupt the morals of youth. Hunting 
«l» a& amusement nuich practised among the fashionable beaux 
.of this country; but, although I approve of the exercise ^t 
.''Upon horseback,, with the free and uncontaminated air of the 
; <eottBtryv tohrace-and strengtheaweak nerves ; 8iil],these bene- 
i^ifita^may be derived without the wauton cruelty which attends 

An^deus, duke of Savoy ,when asked by certain embassaditrs 
-•^at-came to his court, What hounds he had, for they desired 
vto ftee them ? He shewed them the next day, a pack af pOor 
. people feeding «t his table, and said, These are tha hounds 
-+ wherewith I hunt after heaven. Maeedonius the hermit rerifr- 
J ing into the wilderness, that he might with more freedom enjoy 
s God, and have his conversation in heaven. Upon a time there 
'vieame a young gallant into the wilderness to hunt wild beasts, 
9 and seeing the hermit rode up to him, asking him, Why he 
r came into that solitary place ? He desired he might have leave 
' to ask himthe«ame question. Why he c^me thither ? I came 
hither to hunt, saith the gentlemen; and so do I, saith t{ie 
hermit, I hunt after, my God. And Lady Jane Gray, when 
asked hy Mr. Roger Ascham, how she could lose such pastime, 
her fkther with the dutchess being a htinting in the park, smil- 
ingly anawered, AH sport in the park is but a shadow of that 
pleasure I find in this book, having a good book in her hand. 
Never, then, my dear son, be at a loss for an amusement, 
nor a companion, while a good book can be had. For I may 
say of books what the nobleman said to Plato some days after 
he had dined with him, that his dinner was not only pleasant 
H while it lastedjbut had left with him such aa agreeable sensation 

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that he would never forget it.*-It bttug seasoned widi the 
cohversdtion of the Philosopher. 

Bodks fire often of inestimable value : they are silent moni- 
tors, and faithful friends that,thou^ dead,yet speaketh. Cesar 
seems to have been of this opinion ; for, when swimming thro' 
th^ waters to eseape his enemies, he carried his books in hit 
hand above the waters, but lost his royal robes; 

* Tis books a lasting pleasure can supply, 
Chann while we live, and teach us how to die. 

For, in the volumes of the mighty deady 
We feast on joys to vulgar minds unknown. 

As dome profession or business, must engross the afber part 
of your life, ( for I do not mean you to be the finished coxcomb 
as I see,) I shall endeavour to give you a few orthodox 
adrices on this head, and particularly, to point out to you, the 
most dangerous characters you should guard against. If you 
are in business, you will be subject to many imposiions from 
ptetended friencb, as well as from open enemies, but watch 
over them with Argus*s eyes ; consider that the world is full oi 
fraud and deceit, and few are to be trusted. Men, in general, 
are mercenary and' selfish. Take^ then, the advice which 
Christ gave to his apostles when he commissioned them to 
preach the everlasting gospel, Math. x. 16, Behold, I send you 
lorth as sheep in the midst of wolves : be therefore wise as 
serpents, and harmless as doves. Count then every man an 
honest man, but deal with him as if he were a rogue. These 
will often prevent the harpies from injuring you, and put at de- 
fiance the deep laid schemes of the cunning traitors. Still, al- 
thou^ these advices are given you tn a general sense, and 
csinnot fail of being useful to you if rightly attended to: Yet 
diere are three classes of people more dangerous than' any I 
have fei mentioned, as their evils are of greater magnitude^ and 
you are more liable to them. Their' insinuations are like the 
lyreh^s song, and the serpent's charmer,-?*hey amuse but to 
^Ceive, and their deception is to destruction and death here, 
and hell hereafter. Tht^se three characters, — a Pett^^oggins: 
lto^er,-T-a Quack Doctor^ and a Heterodox Preacher^ I i^hall 
etideavour to unmask, so ^f^ yju may ji^ee them, not through a 
' glass darkly, but face to faipe. The veil of hypocrisy is thm, 


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and may be easilyiieeD through, or drawn aside by a Tery ca^ 
sual obs^rver^ 

The first, a P^t^-fof^ng Lawyer; if you listen to him, he 
will endeavour to get you ensnared, but make you believe your 
cause IS 'good, wl^ile he is leading you step by step into des- 
truction, in the n^^tzy labyrinth of law; will drain you of your 
all, your last^lling not excepted ; at last make your property 
the prey of the ravening wolves of his party, who will, under 
pretence of law, strip you as bare as the crow in the fable, then 
ienve you unprotected to fight your own cause, to stand the 
fury of the storm, and all its rising elements. A petty-fogging 
lawyer is one of ^e most despicable and detestsA^le wretches 
that I know. — He frequents all public places, has his hand in 
ev^ry person's affairs, fills his own pockets from the ruins of 
many poor widow and fatherless child. The arbitrary manner 
in. which he conducts himself; his ignorant pride and mean in- 
significance) when parading the street with monky freaks, are 
too contemptible for your notice. They are generally crea« 
tiires. of the most abject conduct, meanly bom and bred, the 
sons of some poor mechanic, or petty farmer; but, in the course 
of a few years, it is no uncommon thing for some of these petty- 
fo^ers to become farmers, shipowners, &q, &c &c at the exf- 
pence of many^an unfortunate debtor and creditor ! It is a 
r»re thing to find one of them who can write a letter of com- 
mon sense, even upon the most trifling subject,without consult- 
ing their GamalieUs in the south, for whom they cater, and are 
commonly called die jackall-lawyers : yet their pretensions 
are such, that no mere man can excel them in wisdom, Ac 
Not quite a century ago, in a small seaport town on the east 
coast ofScotlandJ knew one of these pettyfpggers,who thought 
bis vernacular tongue was too vulgar for him : so, to give him 
more the air of a fashionable gentleman of quality, (altl^iigh 
the creature had come to the place in a state of beggary,) and. 
that he might be the bwi ton of the ieaux aprits^ and that he 
might observe a coup d* ail in his love amours ; and be able 
to say in his public capacity, gibier ffepQtence; he paid fifly 
pounds, (they no doubt came h^ht to him,) to a strolling player 
who taught French the tin^ I was there. Ignorant and sillj 
people employ them,owing to the great pretensions they make» 
but few have ever gr^ cause to howt of their winning. When 

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they get their finger into the pie •fa bankrupt concern, (of 
which they are particularly fond,)they are generally well fledg** 
ed before they fly away. — But alas for the poor unfortunatte 
debtor subject to the merciless fangsof a blood-thirsty vampire! 
A poor widow who l)ad been deprived of the husband of het* 
youth, the solace of her sickness, the stay and comfort ofbdr 
family, has been known to have been dragged forth from th^ 
bosom of her weeping children, amidst the cries and tears of 
her assembled neighbours ; sent to prison, stript of her all,— 
her hard-eariied savings, to pay the unjust demands of a law- 
less creditor, at the request of a petty-fogging lawyer, merely 
with a view to fill his own pocket,and'keep up an appearance in 
society which he wished the world to think he tvas entitled. 
No wonder then, my deaf boy, I should wish you to be parti- 
cularly watchful over such a character. Christian charity, in*- 
deed, commands you to love your enemies, but not to follow 
their example. Should you, therefore, meet with Such an on6 
as I have here described, love him as au enemy, but guard a- 
gainst his wiles, and abhor with detestation, (who would not?) 
his principles and practices: for; you may as sooYi tame an ui^ 
tamable Hyena, as reform a petty- fogging-lawyer; but if you 
watch him properly, he cannot hurt y6u. Like the wild beasts 
in the Tower, he niay show his teeth through the iron gratings, 
but cannot bite. For this reason, that you may be a check t6 
such in your dealings, I wish you to study sind make yourseFf 
acquainted with the laws of your country, not as a profession 
during your own ple&sure, but as a most necessary acquirement 
to the man of business. . . 

The second, a Quack Doctor, u e. one who pretends to be 
skilled in surgery, physic, Ac. but who is, in reality, an impostor 
and cheat. Such a character as this you must allow is a dan-** 
gerous one, and therefore guard^also against his inipositions; 
for he may not only entail misery on yourself during your life- 
"time, but also on your children s children, (if you have any j) 
to niany generations, as I shall endeavour to prove to you im*- 
niediately .-^if you' entrust unto him the care of your own 
health, or that of your faifnily*s, you d6 Wrong. Health is one 
of the most precious blessings we enjoy under heaven ; and he 
who robs you of this, robs^you of your all, even all the pleasures 
the world can afford.-^ Your, enjoyments, your usefulness in the 

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wortd, to your country; to society ; to your family ; and even 
to your God, if you are a servant of His. If you are laid upon 
k bed of sickness and care by such a person as here described^ 
how grievous is it to be borne? Your son or your daughter, 
on whom you placed much cofidence to be the comfort of your 
declining years, may be carried to the solitary bed of the gravct 
just when the opening bud begins to bloom theiryouthful cheek. 
But above all, the bosom partner of your joys and sorrows^ the 
nurse in your sickness, the choice of your early love, and the 
sweetner of life, may be laid, for years, on a bed of languish- 
ing and pain; and, at last, in the rosy time of her youth, and in 
the midst of her contemplated pleasures, the rose gives place 
to the lily, the carmine lips are exchanged for the ermine, and 
she is carried out atmidst the sighs and sobbings 'of a helpless 
and tender offspring, to that clay-cold house which is appoint- 
ed for all living. These miseries are but the shadows of those 
which oflen fau to the lot of those unsuspecting persons who 
depend upon the skill of such an imposter; and facts but too 
^often realized in the simple cottage of the poor peasant. 

The third and last of these classes, the most dangerous of 
them all, a Heterodox Preacher. A petty fogging lawyer may 
render you miserable by depriving you of all the necessary 
comforts of life, health and hope excepted. A quack doctor 
may rob you of health and all its enjoyments ; but what are all 
these to the loss of an immortal soul, which a heterodox prea- 
cher may be |h^ cause of your doing ? He preaches doctrine 
inimical to th^^word of God, and endeavours to make you be- 
lieve he is leading you in the right way. On a death bed he 
persuades you that your sins are forgiven, and thus leads you 
unthinkingly to the verge of destruction, if you give ear to his 
flattering tale. But as you know there will be false teachers 
on the earth, as said by St.Matthew and others, who will even, 
if such were po88ible,deceive the very elect themselves. There* 
fore, believe not every preacher who harangues you fair, who 
pretends to more righteousness than any of his feHows, who 
says Lord, Lord, but try his spirit whether he is of God» 
which is of the utniost importcmce for you to knoir before yoa 
attend to his ministry. 

For all enthusiasts when the fit is strongs 

Indulge a volubility of tongue. 

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I haTe new, my dear Charles, given you an outline of those 
charactefSi and the. evils that they daily commit on the unwary, 
that I wisti you to ^liard against. F shall next show you that 
itisnot the professions of Law, Medicine, ai?d Divinity, 
tha^you are tp despise, but the bad characters who make bud 
use of them^ when contrasted With those that follow. Law, 
Medicine, and Divinity, in the hands of good and virtuous men, 
give us permanent happiness while here, and endless felicity 

In the first place, Laub, {n the hands of a just man, is like a 
wap of fire around us. — It protects the weak from the attacks 
of the strongi^-secures the property of the unarnled from the 
l^nds of the armed ruffian — affords protection to innocence, 
an4 secures and punishes the guilty. The feeble land weak* 
ii^djed is prevented from becomitig a prey to the wile^ and de- 
ceit of the prafty — sets the innocent prisoner free frbm hiis 
tvrannical and unjust oppressor^ and from the g^ling shackles 
^at chain him to the ada^mantifie rock in the dreary dungeon 
Of ^espair, and enables him to lie down in safety, and ^enjoy 
th^weet repose of contented ambition. 
. These are a few of the advantages that accrue to mankind 
^om a right use of law. — The law is honourable, when i^is en- 
forced by ail honourable person, and such a person I am proud 
to, boast I have for a friend; and whose portrait you will find 
tfnis delineated by the prophet Ezekiel xviii. 7 & 8, And 
hath not appressed any* but hath restored to th^ debtor his 
pledge, hath spoiled none by violence, hath given his bread f;o 
the hungry, and hath covered the naked wiUi a garment ; He 
ti)at hath not given forth upon usuary, neither hath taken any 
increase, that hath withdrawn his hand from iniquity, hath exe- 
cuted true judgment between man and man. Hpw different 
aire all the actions of this just man, when compared with those 
of a jackall-pettyfogger ? The one is actuated by the prin- 
ciples, of honour, of the gentleman, and the man of feeling. 
The other is hurried on by sordid avarice, deceit dnd cruelty, 
apiJ everything that is mean, base, degr^iug to law, and con- 
tejnptibie to man ; seeking where he l^ath not strewed, tmd . 
r^mg where he hath not sown. 

When you rneet with, my dear Charles, such a gentleman 
as I have her^ said, is the just man, (and such an one you wil| 

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most probably find in your pilgrimage through life,) place &!• 
in your heart's core; for, by the ties of gratitude, you are 
bound to respect and esteem nim ; but away with the beggeriy 

In the second place, Miedicine^ or rather a Doctor of Medi- 
cine, also claims your particular attention ; and it is the duty 
of humanity to esteem as much, as it is to despise the other 
ignorant pretender, whom I have designated as quack' doctor. 
As both pretend to have their authority from the same source, 
which possibly maybe; and both may have studied Uiewofks 
of Galen, Hippocrates, Paracelsus, &c, — made themselves 
acquainted with their celebrated nostrums, infallible antidotes 
and special catholicons for all the infirmities of the human 
body ; but I shall endeavour to point out to you the mighty 
difference in their dispositions, and conduct towards the d^ 
under their charge. I do not pretend to say that every M.D. 
acts as it becomes the honourable title ; ner that every one 
who passes at Surgeon's Hall, and receives a diploma of their 
' being a member of the Royal College of Physicians, should be 
entrusted with your life, but that those only who act iron a 
conscience of doing their duty towards God, and towards man. 
Nor do I say that the additional consonants of M. D. are ab« 
solutely necessary to the man of genius to constitute him a pro- 
ficient in the art of ph3r8ic. JL only mean that, that man wiio 
watches with the assiduofis care and attention of the good 
^amaratin, the healing of an ulcer,' of a fractured leg or arm, 
for nights, and even weeks together, and restores the same to 
health and strength, is more entitled to our respect and esteem, 
than he who had given it up as incurable, or deprived die suf- 
ferer, by amputation of his precious limb, all the means he 
had in his power of making himself and his family happy for 
perhaps forty or fifly years yet to come, to save himself from 
the fatigue of a few nights' sleep, or days' pleasure-^Even 
^sculapius himself would not blush te be counted the good 

Again, if we visit the house of mourning, the chamber of 
death, the groam'ng bed of a tender father and affectionate 
husband, we will find the worthy physician no less active In 
his duty here, than when he was surgeon in the former case. 
Behold him sharing the misery of the disconsolate family ;^-. 

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atteadkig with filial affection the convulfiied movements, and 
every despairing throe ojpa frame, which, to all appearance, 
would 80on become a tenant of that house wherein the weary 
rest from their labours, and where the sorrows of the troubled 
oeaie. Even when hope has been buried in the bosom of af- 
fliction, the faithful physician perseveres in the work of bene- 
ficence and love : he gives that cordial cup to a dying man 
that soothes his sorrows in the midst of his troubles, and con* 
soles bis weeping relations. Were we, but for a moment, to 
visit this scene of distress, it would teach us what respect is 
due to such a man. Suppose yourself for a moment in the 
company of one who has been given up by his former physician, 
-*-see him stretched on a bed of pain. While in the agony of 
despair he rolls his head on the agonizing pillow of affliction ; 
unable to speak, he lifts the chilly hand, expiring in death, and 
beckons silence from the friendly group, who weeps their de- 
parting friend. But Oh ! the cries, the tears, the unfeigned 
tears* that fun in torrents down the spotless cheek of inno- 
cence, the heart-rending scene of misery, the unparalleled 
spectacle ofwse, that presents itself in the little urchins that 
fondly cling to the heart-broken mother, unconscious of what 
is done or said. Here the physician, the friend of man, dis- 
plays his healing art to an astonished and hopeless family .-«.• 
He dries the tears of ^he witless babe, and msJces the heart of 
tite sorrowful mother rebound with joy. — He restores to health 
the dying father, and presents him a living sacrifice to the bo- 
som, of a grateful and numerous offspring. The blessings that 
daily arise to our country, to society, and to private individuals 
in particular,, from this highly useful profession, are obvious 
to 'every one ; but the best of things may be abused. 

How different is the conduct, and how commendable the 
V physician, and how much more dear to us is he who makes him- 
self one of the family, partakes of its sorrows, feels for its af- 
fltctions, and spends many weary -days and midnight oil in pur- 
suit of remedies to alleviate its burden of woe, than he, whose 
only desire is gain, who laughs at his suffering patient, while,' 
in the bitterness of his soul, he exclaims against all sublunary 
things, and death lyringing his heart in twO| and giving the last 
stroke to his shattered frame ! , 

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. The third wad last, an Orthodox Preacher of the Go9fdf-^ 
SL Doctor of Divinity. (As the. word doctor mgai^esteachef^ 
i apply It in a general sens^ejthat i$ to 8ay,to all ministers of th^ 
gospel yritiiout discrimination.) Among all. men, a pr^chejr 
of the gospel is mps/t entitled to your reverence and respect* 
The lawyer securer your property to you, the physician your 
health, but the ministfer, (with your own assistance,) your so^t* 
Thie lawyer and physician, claim your respect upon their own 
account; but the minister claims it from the relation he stands 
to those on high. A preacher of the gospel is also % minister 
of the gospel. But wlule he administers unto the flock under 
hi> pastoral care, the glad tidings of salvation, he must not 
himself be a cast-away, but endeavour, like young 'Timothy, 
to imitate the life, of his blessed Master in all those actions 
which can be accomplished by human nature, that he may be* 
come a burning and a shining light to all those who are travel? 
ling Zion- wards ; and also, that his exainple before men naay 
be such as,becometh one in alliance with f;he Most High : f(Hr 
example is more followed than precept, and leaves a imojre 
lasting impression upon the mind. 

A minister of the gospel is one pfpeace'tq.a troiitiled -mini 
—He makes your case his own, and weeps and prays with yoif 
in the evil day of your calamity and trouble — He visits the 
widows and fatherless in their affliction, and keeps himself ud^ 
spotted from the wprld.— rHe is the pilot of yoMr immortal 
soul — He wrestles with God in prayer: for your salvatiop— v 
HjB comforts the broken-hearted, and cures the bleeding soul. 
To him who. sits in the valley of the shadow of deaths under 
the bond of iniquity, and in the gall of bitterness, he is a^ .a 
light to his feet« and as a lamp to his path.— He dispels th(^ 
dark clouds of ignorance from the burdened mind, and cheer* , 
ishes the downcast and desponding sinner. — He encourages th<^: 
feeble hand, and builds up and strengthens those that -i^re 
already begun in the works of faith and love. ^ , 

These are a few of the offices and duties of a minister of th^, 
everlasting gospel; and as such, whatever may be your station,, 
or situation in life, he claims your regard. His appearance majK ^ 
be mean, the family from whom he has descended obscurer, 
and his relations poor and despised ; nevertheless he is entitled. ' 
to respect. A Cock, insignificant as he iS| proved a preitchier ; 

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to the saving of the soul of one of the most zealous of tKe 
Apostles. It is also said that, the roaring lion, the king of 
the forest, trembles at the crowing of a cock ; so shall the 
devil, the roaring lion of hell, tremble at the preaching of due 
gos|)el9 even by one of not very prepossessing appearance. 

There are many others in the world I would have you rever- 
ence and esteem, besides those just mentioned. Every good 
and just man ought to be the object of your affection and re- 
gard. Not every one who makes a vain show with riches 
or dress, although you are commanded to give unto 
Cesar the things that are Cesar's, and unto God the things that 
are God's ; and to give honour to whom honour is due. This 
injunctioiiy by no means, binds you to a mean subjection to 
those ignorant pretenders who make an ostantatious display 
of religious fanaticism, or costly dress; but respect your super- 
iors, inferiors, and equals, as becometh your station, not upon 
account of their riches or outward appearance but upon 
account of their wisdom, usefulness, piety, and modesty. — 
Modesty is a becoming virtue, never to be met with umong the 
ignortant nor prophane, and seldom valued according to its 
deserts by unthinking people. 

In all your actions, behave with christian fortitude, sjpirited 
and manly, but not insolently, haughty, nor proud; and speak 
evil of no man. Despise the whinging and flattering caresses 
of the hateful sycophant ; for he who stoops to such meanness 
has a design upon your person or fortune — Honesty is the 
best policy. Be not swayed in your judgm^t by the glitter- 
ing display of gaudy attire, the pomp of riches, nor by the pro- 
fusion and multitude of words, for often a smooth tongue be- 
trays, and a fair outside covering hides a base and a black 
heart.*— The vanity of riches is otlen but for a moment. You 
will recollect the showy Butterfly, the queen of summer, you so 
much admired, which, tnly a few months ago was dressed in 
all the luxury of nature, the wanton array and beauty of June, 
proudly skipping from flower to flower, on July's light fantastic 
toe; is now a womi, crawling upon its belly, feeding on the 
dust of the earth, and humb ly seeking the meanest comer of 
yotir dwelling to defend it from the fury of a pitiless winter. 
Humihty in dress is becon^ng all ranks ; SUt that person who 
lavishly dresses out in all Uie foppish fooleries.of fashion, cer- 

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lainly betrays a rery great want of understanding, ^nd may b^ 
justly compared to the cinnamon tree,— the barlt is wortb 
more than the body. Many have been rocked in the cradle 
of fortune — ^nursed at the breast of prosperity, and lien in the 
lap of plenty; who, before their deaths would have been glad 
to have filled their bellies with the husks that the swine did 
eat. — The smiles of fortune are fickle, and the pleasures of life 
transitory. Many have been enrobed the one day in purple 
and fine linen, and the next day in rags. Jane Shore, concu- 
bine to Edward IV. of England, once had as much power 
and wealth as any in the kingdom, the king excepted, but at 
last died picking a bone on a dung-hill. — Xerxes crowned his 
steersman in the morning, and beheaded him in the evening of 
the same day.— Andronicas. the Greek emperor, crowned his 
admiral in the morning, and then took ofFhis head in tlie after- 
noon. — Hamon fisasted with the king one day, and was him- 
self made a feast for the crows the next.— The great J^ebuch- 
adnezzar, while he walked on the ramparts of his palace, view- 
ing his hanging gardens, and splendid city, proudly vaunted in 
his might; and, in the pride of his heart, exultingly exclaimed, 
— "Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for my metro- 
polis, and by the might of my power, and for the honour of 
my majesty? "was immediately struck with lycanthrophy,banish- 
ed from the society of men, made a companion to the beasts 
of the field, did eat grass as the ox, and snared with them the 
rigours of the burning sun, and the frigid frost, in their great- 
est severity. And the rich man in the gospel fared sumptuous- 
ly every day while in life ; had all the luxuries of the East at 
his table ; his servants ran. at his command ; his bed was strew- 
ed with the fragrant spices of Arabia ; and he sptu-ned tl^e 
poor from his gates, yet was necessitated to beg a drop of 
water to cool his burning tongue while in the regions of the 
condemned, from the very person he despised while in luf 

Be no^ then wedded to the world ; place not your confidence 
in the favours of men, nof. your happiness in that which is li- 
able to take wines and fly away as a morning cloud. But fix 
yo«r mind upon miperishable things above, so as you may have, 
treasure in heaven, where neither moth nor rust can corrupt*^ 
ii^or thi^es break, tbroti^^h and steal* Worldly ricb^e^ ^e b<^^ 

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for tlie moment, and selJom confer lipppiness on their possess- 
or: for, as an euiperov once stiid to a person who gazed on 
his purple robe and golden crown, " did you but know what 
cares are under it, you .i^ould not take it up from the ground 
to have it." It is not- wiiat men enjoy, but the principle from 
whence it comes, that makes men happy. 

. If e*er Fve moum'd my humble, lowly state, 

If e'er Fve bow'd my knee at fortune's 8hrine» 
If e'er a wish escap'd me to be ereati 

The fervent prayer, humanity, was thine. 
Perish the man who hears the piteous tale 

Unraov'd, to whom the heart-felt glows unlaiown; 
On whom the widow's plaints could ne'er prevail^ 
Nor make the mjur'd wretch's cause his own. 
How little knows he that extatic joy, 

The thrilling bliss of cheering wan despair ! 
How little knows the pleasing warm employ. 
That calls the grateful tlrmute of a tear. 
The splended dome, the vaulted rock to rear. 

The glare of pride and pomp, be, granduer^ thine f 
To wipe frome misery's eye the wailing tear. 

And sooth the oppressed orphan's woe, be mine. 

I have now,, my dear Charles, pointed out to you a few of 
those vices and follies that ensnare the inexperienced youth ; ' 
also what characters I wish you to shun.' I shall now add a^ 
few thoughts on religion. — Religion is LovEi it is the true 
worship of Godv and that which gives us a just knowlege of out- 
sePrea, what we are by nature, and how to flee from the wrath 
6 come, and through the merits of a crucified Saviour, its 
wWs are pleasant, and its paths peace. Pute religion and un<* 
defiled before God and the Father (says James i. 28,) is this, 
1*0 visit the fatherless and widows in their afBiction, and to 
k«ep himself unspotted from the world. And Lord Bacon says, 
tlbat the first principle of right reason is religion ; in req[>ect to 
which it was the wisest way to live strictly and severely. For. 
if the opinion of another world |[)e not true, yist the pleasantest 
IHe'lii this world is piety, virtue, and honesty: If it be, thea 
noiieis so miserable as the vicious, carnal, and prophane per* . 
aims, who live a dishonourable and unworthy life in this world. 

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end like to fall into a most sad and deplorable slate in thenar. 
You are then to begin in the morning of your days to be relir 
gious, to be piou«>, and to worship God in spirit and in truth* 
Abijah, when a child, even in the midst of the wicked house 
of Jeroboam, did that which was right in the sight of the Lordi 
and Timothy was early acquainted with the scriptures. Manj 
put the time of their religion far off> as they do diat of an evU 
day: but, my dear son, do not trust to this; for, as Seneca 
says, though death be before the old man's face, yet he may 
be as near the young man's back.-Many graves in the church-^ 
yard can bear testimony of this. Felix began to tremble at 
the preaching of Paul, but we never after hear of his becomang 
a coilvert. Martha was cumbered about many things : so will 
you once you get entangled in the concerns of the worlds and 
bent with the infirmities of age. In the spring or morning of 
your 4ays you have few sins to repent of; in the evenings you 
nave many, and less capable— In the mprning, your parts are 
lively, senses fresh, memory strong, nature vigourous, and firee 
from that oppressive care which attends age or the evening of 
Lfe*. The 6g-tree was cursed for not bearing fruit ; and so will 
every one that is barren and Cumbereth the ground. If you 
let slip the time of your youth, the flower of your days, death 
may seize you, and so be deprived of the opportunity of repent^ 
ipg when old. It is also said that, when men grow virtuous kk - 
their old age, they only make a sacrifice to God of the ^evil's 
leavings. As life is but a hand-breadth or a span, and as you 
tannot even boast of to-morrow, and having such a long jour* 
ney as eternity before you, it becomes you to be up and early 
on the road. Four views of death and eternity while we are 
in health, are far from those we have when stretched upon i^ 
bed of deaUi. But the Christian can welcome death in any 
shape, he is like an armed man, he has put on the. whole ar- 
mour of God to the saving of his soul. How different were the 
dying moments of the pious Addisonv who called for his step-: 
son, lord Warwick, and pressing him by the hand, softly said 
" See in what peace a Christian can die ! " While a late nobie 
man, in the agony of despair, shrieked out, " A week's life 1 
Thirty Thousand Pounds for a week's life ! " But that nigh% 
God required his soul of him. — It is a dreadful thing, (if uq<^ 
preared>) to fall into the hands of the living God. ,^si 

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)l^ ttff Idiigddni «^i> Kaa, id iHftt in hife tiffife h6 htfm^d t6 
ami Etirdp'^ ftd WUl a^ Efie^ild, wkeh he dim \A «M 
SsiHda 6^ lAi Uf^, l^ft thfe #dr)a With thiiclbsg r^fii^cdoa 
t^ hiMelf, Had I h^^t b^ dmg\srA to kerVe m)r God, a6 1 was 
^ pl^asif itty kitig, l)[li W6tild hot havb left hi6 hdir in my gref 

, f¥8fD &6^ IHslSric^^, it ft^ fli^ii b^ ih^ ihku dilr jo^ 
8^ «^fe btit 6f ^oft diii>atidh, &iltt wfe hstv^ no p^rhi^n^ht dtjT 
tef^ iS&r pUck Of slbode : tli^lt itiail is born bo troabl6 ai thS 
8>afk& % up^ati, AM ds tJni hoafy-headed I*artriaf ch ^jtid 
io JPh&iroi&h, afl^i* Iboldn^ batkto ili& daji of his childhood ix\i 
ytfblfi, *^ tfetfr and ifevil had bfefcii the diys of hi* pilgrimage; '^ 
8d)0i(^ alio ^vg, dh^r he had tri^d a thoui^and tariou^ ^^* 
^€^{iii^htil^ Mh the Alchymist ik putftdit <> hfe PhilosdpheF^ 
8t<^e, ii^ fdlmd that dll his researches intb nature and art, Hf| 
f^l^ih iM hatipin^ss, Vere but vanity and v^xiltion df spirit; 
¥ke WBitA is iik^ Joseph's coat, it has miny colours, it b chif- 
MkM With ^aifi ahd sorrow, joy and ^oe. And, althduh ^^ 
fik adflig, iitk ^^Mitt^tl td drink of the crystal fountain of fdr-i 
iiiDij tb cbdl b^i tiih*st M fiapbinesd, still we are told by ouf 
t^imr; JdiihiV. IS&^U, Whd^o^V^r dHhkethof t^i^ w^^ 
(HI! thliit iBlg&ih,but whb^e\^^ d^inketh 6f the itaterof life shall 
i*?df iWh. btit h\^ in hith ft WeD'df Water springing uji into e^ 
1^ l^titi^ lif<^. In religion, thdh^you can only fiiid the balifa o^ 
e«mf#rt ; it dispels the gldoihy ^i'osptcts of dekth Itnd eternity ; 
brightens dur hope of a future and.a better life— ^ ci^y whose 
builder and maker is God. It sttods on a rock whose founda- 
tion origuiated wiUt tke first downing of ^day, whei^t the sons of 
tfie mortnng skng together ahd shouted fbr joy ; wbi^n creation 

rag from the chaos of nothing : and it will continue till the 
^set in sB^nce/ forget to tfo their accustomed round, and 
the Sun of Righteousness faath put idl enemies under his feet. 
Rdigion not only consoles you in a^ictidni i^pmdian.ds you to 
refrain frdm eril, — to keep yourself unspotted ffom the world ; 
but to do good — ^nota hearer but aaoer of theword — by visit- 
ing the widows ahd the fttherless in their affiction^ . We are 
bufesiewdrdshere^ ahd if we be entrust^ with mdt^ than our 
netghbotirs of the gdod thihgs of this life^ it ift oui" duty to give 
f;o &osb his iKtwmdi tiot to keq^ tbcliiiUid up iHinapkin^ or 

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hid in the ground. Nor should our alms be, 
nor with the supercilious air of one giving for ostentation, to 
«ee himself J ranked with the respectable donors of the pooK*. 
In the cfise of benevolence, we are desired not f let the left 
hand know what the right hand doeth.^' Hje who giveth with 
vain show, and to hurt the tender feelings of the dejected and 
downcast that have seen better days/ is certainly very repre-, 
hen^ible in the sight of all good and modest men. Boaz^in the ' 
book, of Ruth II. 9, 1^ & 16, presents us with one of the most 
beautiful and inodest lessors in relieving the needy, that is to 
be found. He did not go about promulgating his divine inten- 
tions among his neighbours; nor did he wound the faithful 
heart of the pensive Ruth, nor raise the conscious blush of in- 
nocence on the wan and £Eimished cheek by hh lordly demean- 
or. The two last verses mentioned, (15 & 16) may serve as a 
specimen of his becoming behaviour on this trying but friendly 
occasion. — And when, she was risen up to glean, Boaz com- 
manded his young men, saying, Let her glean even am«ng the 
sheaves, and reproach her not : And let fall also some of the 
handfuls of purpose for her, and leave them, that she may gleaa 
them, and rebuke her not. This judicious stratagem saved 
him the apology of t)frering her the gleanings publicly, and, of 
ranking her with the common paupers. It had another good 
effect^ It saved her the confusion and shame of a formal ac- 
knowledgement. — Giving in season to those in need, is like 
showers of rain to the parched ground. 

On thee, O heaven, ray hope and comfort lie 
For competence of wealth, — be health my lot. 

That I the wailing orphan may supply 
With bread ; — ^the needy, ui the humble cot. 

That pleasure mine,— 4:he drooping soul to cheer. 
The weary pilgrim, and the widow's moan ; 

To dry the furrow 'd cheek of many a tear. 
And make, O poverty, thy case my own I 

BMt while I aid the poor,— thy tender care, . 
. With temporal mercies, may they ne^er desptte 

The hand that feeds them from above ; but share 
. The {>ronns*d bliss beyond imiQortal skies! : ^ 

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In this short letter, I cannot point out to you all that is ne- 
cessary for you to bejieve concerning God, nor the duty that 
He requires o( man. But one thing I must recommen« unto 
.you, and that is, a careful, and attentive perusal of your Bibx^e, 
for in it you will find the duty of a Christian while here, and a 
topographical description of the country and its inhabitants to 
which he would wish to steer his course hereafter. — It is' the 
compass without variation ; and the most correct chart of your 
v^^yage to the New Jerusalem, the haven of rest, by the best 
Authors. Also, in it is to be found the words of eternal life. 
Seek ye then, firji the righteouness of Christy and all other 
things will be added unto it. — The knowledge of God is great 
gain. I have read somewhere of a poet, who,with many others 
were going as passengers from one distant country to another 
on shipboard ; but on their way a storm arose, and the ship 
was lost. During the gale, many of the passengers were busi- 
ly engaged packing pp their most valuable jewels and riches, 
w-hen one of them observed the poet going about quite uncon- 
cernedly, and asked him why he was not securing his riches, h^ 
calmly replied, *' I carry them always about me," Many of 
the passengers with the weight' of their money, ilrc. sunk be- 
neath the briny waves to rise no more, and so made their beds 
with the fishes in the deep. Others, on their landing on the 
shore, were either murdered or plundered by the natives of the 
place, that they might become possessed of their all; but, a 
noblemen who had had read the poet's works, and esteemed 
them much, hearing of his being among the unfortunate, waited 
upon him personally, took him to his house, fed him at his 
table, and clothed him as one of the family. Sometime after 
the poet met with a few of his companions in distress, begging 
their bread from door to door, and said unto them, " you now 
see that I carry my jewels along with me," Such is the su- 
periority of the intellectual jewels. Be then, like the poet, 
my dear Charles, trust not in perishable riches, but in that 
grace which is able to build you up, and make you wise unto , 

^^ As it is necessary for the followers of Christ to become a 
memher of some congregation or Church, it is very natural for 
vou tto suppose I will recommend the one in which I havOf 
been brought up and belong, but not so ; nor will I recommend' 

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any pthc;r io preference. I wish to leave you ^t Hb^v (a <^ete 
lot yourself->conscience should be free from the s^acldes of 
another. Their is no one particular form of Church-govcrn- 
inent, or discipline,' (although many consider {t the principal 
>irt of their creed,) that 1 know that is more capable of carry- 
vg you to heavep than another, prorided that your heart, your 
lite,and your actions do not accord with the commands of God* 
But if these agree with the written testimony handed down to 
lis by His inspired prophets and apostles, any of them is suf^ 
£pient ; it is not the outward form but the inward heart. And 
certain am I that, there will be in heaven, giving glory tp tl^ 
JLamb that sitteth on the throne, people out of all countrieiL 
9ut of all nations, of all churches, denominations, sects, kindrea 
and tongues. 

The disputes that have arisen among Chri8tians,and the op- 
probrium and vile epithets which the one party has lavishly be- 
stowed upon the other for their religious tenets, are truly dis- 
graceful m a country where evangelicalpreaching may be heard 
m its greatest perfection. The one goes about crying, I am 
^f Pavl ; another, P am of Appollos. One he is a follower of 
John Calvin, the other of John Arminius. Even in the pre- 
sent day^ with shaipe be it spoken, how many religious, ^nder 
the name of praying associations, are ^tablished, wherp fettle 
^ut hypocrisy and guile are practised ? They measure their 
sanctity by the length and loudness of their prayers — ^ parcel 
pf unmeaning words jumbled together, blasphemously telling 
God what He is, and charging Him with their sins and sorrow^, 
Iri^ey worship. God with their Mps, but their hearts are ^t fraok 
Him. ' ' 

Religion ever p}eas*d to pray, 
Possessed the precious gift one day ; 
Hypbprisy, of Cunning bom, 
(^r^ept iji and stole it ere the morn. 

Tljieir meetings a^e more to feed rancour, and to rail upmi one . 
»iother, than' to glorify God. On beholding the behaviour oj? 
Calvinists, to Anninians, and Arminians to Calvinists, ypu wflf 
say. Where is the Charity that Christ taught his discip^ I^*-*. 
Where is the Love that he showed, and commanded them ta 
jtractise towards one anotlieri whereby ail men m^ht Ipo^ : 

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that Aeyycere bis disciples? Jn their dealip]gs,one with aiiqthcr, 
they are seldom according to equitg and justice, the beam al- 
ways preponderates in favoqr of one pf their own par(y. Thfe 
is i[ propf that the h^^rt is not righ<; toward God. 

Ef^ch zealot thus elate with ghostly pride, 
Adores his God, and hates the world be^de. 

Although I despise the hypocritical cant and ][engthened face 
of the narrow-minded partisans, 1 by no means think lightly 
nor di^re»pectfully of religious associations^ for we h^ve the 
promise or Christ, that, where two or three are gathered to- 
gether in His name, there will He be in t^ie niidst of them,,^ to 
bless tb^m and to do them good* 

I have been there, iuid still vill go, 

* Tis like a little heaven bielow. ' 

Seeming djevotion doth but gild the knave, 
T^iat's neither faithful, honest, just, or brave, 
But where religion does with virtue join, 
It makes a hero like an angel sihine. 

These are my reasons for leaving yoi^p ^b,e freedom of your 
ewn will in the choice of the churen to which you will become 
a member, I hav^ ttie/efore, only ^o request of you not to 
follow the example of these party-sph*ited bigots, but follow the 
Christian fi^d wraisewprthy example of Jehu when he met with 
Jehonadab/S Kings x. 15, Who, when l\e had saluted him, 
said, " Is thine heart right as my heart is \yith thy heart ? And 
Jehonadab answered, it is. If it be, give me thine hand. *^ 
Jehu did i\9t say to Jehonadab, a^e you a Jew, or areyov ^ 
Gentile ? Are ypu a Pharisee, or are you ^ Sad4ucee ? Aye 
you of the house of Jesse and of the trihe of Judah ? He dii 
not say, are you Circumcised, or are jou Uncircumcised ? No 1 
All that he wanted to know was, if his heart were right as his 
heart, i» e. with God ; If it were, to give him his hand- Your 
Saviour, my dear son, was no respecter of persons ; it is true 
^e loved John more than any of the other disc iples^ but is it 
was upon account of his yt>uth and piety — ^he had bpgun earlj^, 
to seek the Lord, although but one in the humblest sphere of 
li^apoor fisherman. Our Saviour enjoined by preceptj and 


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shewed by his own divine example that, we should love ali. 
ynrnkind, our enemies as well as our friends. Therefore, when 
you meet with a person of merit, salute him, whether iVotestant 
or Papist, Presbyterian or Episcopalian, Methodist or Burgher, 
Calvinist or Arminian, if his heart be right with God, give him 
thine hand. 

* Tis possible the reader may inquire. 

To what distinction I myself aspire. 

As this Dedication has insensibly swollen upon me beyond 
the bounds allotted it, even upwards of twenty pages, (which 
will be found in addition to those marked at the end of the 
book,) I rhXist postpone for the present many things I have to 
say : Hoping the few hints and advices contained in it will be 
a means in the hand of God, with your own reflection and 
judgment, when a little more matured with the experience of 
years, of keeping you free from many of the vanities and vices 
. of unguarded youth ; which, if strictly attended to, will confer 
the highest honour upon one who has the happiness to wish 
you a portion' of the Grace of God, and to be, with pleasure, 

My Dear Son» 

Your Most Affectionate Father, 

Peterhead, 1 
January 1st, 1824. j 

P.S. Years roll on apace.^ — Since writing the preceding,another 
year has fled,and has waftedon its wings the spirits of thousands 
to regions unknown.Time is in subjection to none — ^it conquors 
all, and lays the mighty low. Husband well then, that portion 
of time which God has given you, so as you may glory in giv- 
ing an account of it at last. I should be happy to see many 
flourishing years crown your youthful head, and in which you 
can say you have found much pleasure. With the prospects of 
the joys of many comming year, be piy prayers for your well- 
fiare here, and your unclouded happiness hereafter. 

P. B. 

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Owing to the very great hurry in which this work has h/etk 

printed^ and much of ii ifever having been in MSf a Jew typOm 

graphical errors have been overlooked; whichy it is hoped^ he 

•oAo reads for instruction wiU excuse^^^The most material thai 

anyways interrupt the sense are^ a Y Jb'- an Oj in the W9ird 

YouTy page XXVlf I2th line from the bottom ; and, where the 

character of Bacchus suffers a metamorphosefrom the masculine 

to the feminine gender; which the reader will transpose bach 

when he reads page XIII, line seventh. 


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[said in mine heart concerning the estate of 
the sons of men ^ that God might manifest 
them, and that they might see that they themti^ 
iehes are beasts* Eccl. IIL 18b 

iML AN by Man has been accounted the lord 
of the creation, while the brutes have been 
thought an encumbrance on the earth. Were 
we Justly and impaitially to consider the link 
that unites the one to the other in the neces- 
sary scale of nature, from the least inanimate 
entity, to the highest animated being, ouu 
pride and Hatred would cease, Man was 
made a little lower than the angels, and the 
brutes a little lower tlian man. Man, in the 
structure of his body, commands reverence 
and respect; but above all, that rational and 
thinking part which we call 5o?//, with which 
he is endowed, and of which he ignorantly 


y Google 


boasts of having the sole privilege. Of thft 
nature, of the properties, and of the compo- 
sition of the body, we can form some adequ- 
ate idea ; but of the perfections and extent 
of the powers of the soul, no man knoweth, 
nor can he have the most indefinite concep- 
tion. Divines, Philosophers, and Naturalists, 
have differed strangely in opinion wlien speak- 
ing of this most important part of our exis- 
tence. The Stoicks count it a spark of 
heavenly light which effulges from the pres- 
ence of God. But the Cartesians make 
thinking the essence of the soul ; and Xen- 
ocrates, as we are told by Clem. Alex, held 
that brutes had sense of God. 

, or God unconsck>U8 even brutes obey ; 
Chiefly in faith man nobler shines than they. 

In scripture, the soul, in general, is under- 
stood to be that spiritual, reasonable, and 
immortal substance which is the origin of ihe 
thoughts, of the desires, and of the reasonings, 
and which bears some resemblance to its 
divine Maker. 

Origen observes that, the soul is, in its 
proper nature, incorporeal and invisible, rnd 
always needs a body suitable to its plate. 
Tills opinion that, the soul always needs a 
body, was so rooted in the lathers that, on e i 

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ftod all, they suppose the soul in the state 
of the dead to be invested with an aerial or 
luminous body. 

Whatever are, 6r may have been the fan- 
cies of Schoolmen or Philosophers in regard 
to the substance, or immateriality of the soul, 
of one thing we are certain, and that is, that 
allanimate beings posses a rational and think- 
ing part which we call Mind or Soul, uncon- 
nected with, but in subjection to matter, cap- 
able of wilHng and reasoning. But, as the 
pious and learned Dr. Watt says, when speak- 
ing of Reason, " It is the common gift of 
God to all men, though all are not favoured 
with it by nature in an equal degree ; but 
the acquired improvements of it in different 
men, make a much greater distinction be- 
tween them than nature had made. I could 
even venture to sa}^ that the improvement of 
reason hath raised the learned and the prud- 
ent in the European world almost as much 
above the Hottentots, and other savages ol 
Africa, as those savages are by nature super- 
ior to the birds, the beasts, and the fishes. '' 
And, Dr. Johnson says, " It is the power by 
which we deduce one proposition from ano- 
ther, and proceed from premises to conse- 
quences. ' 

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Irtiese hypothetical reasonings ifldace uito 
hel ifeve that,dead or in eft riiatter catnnot think, 
and if it cannot think, consequently fcailnot 
reason, and if it cannot reason, it can be no 
soul. On the contrary, when we find an ani- 
mal endowed with the powers of willing, 
thinking, and reasoning, as we see daily, we 
must believe that, these powers are mind or 
soul, and not matter. Again, were one man 
to maintain in the face of another that, he 
had ho soul, his oponent could only pTove the 
contrary by demonstrating his powers of wil- 
ling, thinking, and reasoning; with all the 
other attributes of which it is susceptible. 
Well, cannot the brutes do the same,altnong!i 
in a less degree? Were we to take the most 
sagacious of the brute creation, imd the most 
imcultivated or uncivilized of the human spe- 
cies, how much inferior, to all appearance, 
would we find the former to the latter — ^little 
indeed ! Even in the more refined state of 
man^ how does he degrade himself below the 
level of that brute which he wishes to despise, 
in the sensual gratification of those vicious 
and libidinous habits that lead to ungodliness 
and perdition. 

Although every animal cannot be counted 
a moral agent ; every animal may, in some 
degree, be capable of moral action ; i. e. of 

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doing good or evil freely; and consequently 
may be (in the strictest sense) deserving of 
reward or punishment. But if not, every tiiu- 
mal is certainly capable of pleasure and pain : 
consequently every animal is capable of .re- 
wartl, though not (properly speaking) of 
pun ishment. 'ITius our itleas of justice com- 
pel us to judge: reward is due to any being 
tliat suffers undeservingly; though it be not 
amoral agent: but punishment can belong 
only to moral agents, whose crimes deserve 
it. We allow that, an animal, if no moral 
agent, can deserve no punishment; yet if it 
suffers, we think it ought to have reward. 
We deem it congruous to justice in the Al- 
mighty Maker and Governor to recompense 
with pleasure all undeserved pain, whether 
the suffs'rer be a moral agent or not. 
Therefore,we cannot reconcile to his justice 
the undeserved paiiis of animals by any other 
means,than by supposing that,he has appoint- 
ed for them a future state where, he wdl be- 
stow pleasure for their reward. Perhaps the 
sort of metempsychosis here suggested, is 
true, viz. that souls rise gradually from a 
lower rank into an higher, by such steps as 
are proper to recompense at least their suffer- 
ings, supposing them not moral ; or to re- 
ward or punish their actions, supposing them 

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moral agents. So may they ascend^ until 
they arrive at that final point, where God 
shall please to fix them for ever. It is noth- 
ing irrational to suppose that, some animals 
are at first incapable of moral action ; yet that 
afterwards, by degrees, they rise to become 
capable of it. 

The Immortality of the Souls of Brutes has 
long been a desideratum with those profes- 
edly learned ; and has created in the minds 
of many intelligent and charitable persons, a 
sensation of feeling not easily overcome. 
There have been found advocates to espouse 
the immortality of the souls of brutes, and 
others to espouse the doctrine of its annihil- 

Brutes are a part of the work ofGod's crear- 
tion, and are a part of his special care; as 
we are told in many places of scripture. Gen. 
I. 25, And God made the beast of his kind, 
and cattle after their kind, and every thing 
that creepeth upon the earth after his kind; 
and God saw that it was good. Ver. 30, And 
to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl 
of the air, and to every thing that creepeth 
upon the earth, wherein there is life, I hv\e 
given every green herb for meat: and i was 
so. And God emphatically says, (by the 
mouth of his servant David,) Psalms ju 10 & 

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n, For everjr beast of the forest is mnie, and 
the cattle upon a thousand hills. I know aH 
the fowls of tiie mountains; and the wild 
beasts of the fields are mine. By the same 
genuine authority, we are also informed, 
rsalm* xxxvi. 6^ The Lord preservest man 
and beast. 

In all countries, ahd in almost all ageS of 
the world, from the earliest to the present 
time, the beasts have been in many respects 
ranked with man, and shared with those au- 
gust personages their good and evil fortune. 
The Lord giveth them food, they know him, 
and call for their sustenance; Job xxxviii.41. 
Who projideth for the raven his food? when 
his young ones cry unto God, they wander 
for lack of food, rsalms civ. 21, The young 
lions roar after their prey, and seek their 
meat from God. Fsalms cxlvii. 9, He giv- 
eth to the beast his food, and to the young 
ravens which cry. Math* vi. 26, Behold the 
fowls of the air: for they sow not, neither do 
they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your 
heavenly Father feedeth them. 

Beasts were made previous to man, and 
had the pre-eminence of that honour given 
them which was rejected to him. The holy 
virgin Mary, the mother of our blessed Savi- 
our, had her accouchment among the beasts 

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in a miserable stable in ?n inn at Jerusalm. 
And her lowly son, the 'ueek and heavenly. 
Messiah, whose mission whs to preach peace 
and goodwill towards nian,was first exliibited 
to the beasts ; and to them was lie indebted 
for his cradie and tirst lodgings. By them 
he is often represented to us, as the Lamb of 
God ihat taketh away the sins of the world. 
A dove was the harbinger of glad tidhigs to 
Noah when he wvj^ pent up in the ark, as, by 
the olive leaf he knew that the waters were 
abated from off the earth. They have been 
used often since that time as the messengers 
of good news, being employed as the beaiers 
of dispatches from one distant country to an- 
other. The Holy Ghost is often represented 
to us in the likeness of a dove. And, the 
proud and avaricious Balaam was checked in 
the midst of his impious cruelty by an ass, 
the most sottish of brutes. 

Brutes are also, in many cases, liable to 
the miseries of this life as well as man, alto' 
they are innocent of the cause. Gen. vi. i7, 
And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of 
waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, 
wherein is the breath of life, from under hea- 
ven ; and every thing that is in the earth shall 
die. Deut* xiii. 15, Thou shalt surely smite 
the inhabitants of that city with the edge of 

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ffie motdi destr6yitfg it utterfyi ahd all thai 
k therein, and the cattle thereof, with the 
edge of the sWord. 1 Samiiel tv. 3, Nott 
go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all 
that they have, and spare theta not ; but slay 
both mart and Woman, infant and dockJingi 
ox and sheep, camel anda^s. Ezek. xiv. 13 
and 21, Son of mart, \i^heri the land sinneth 
against hie by trespassing grievously ,^ then 
will i stretch otit mine hand upon it^ and will 
break the st^ff of the bread theieof, and will 
send fartiine upon lU and will cut oflPman and 
beast from it: For thus Saith the Lo*d God^ 
How much more whfeh i send my four soW 
judgments upon Jeru.<?alem, the sword, and 
the fitmirie^ and the noisome beast, and the 
pestileni^e, to cut off from it man and beast? 
ZephJ T. 3, I will consume man and beast; I 
will Gonsumethe fowls of tlie heaven, and the 
fishes of the sea, and the stumbling blocks 
with the wicked; and I will cut o#man from 
off the land, saith the Lord. 

As they are thus subject to the changes 
and vicissitudes which sin has caused on the 
the earth, God was pleased to remember them 
in his covenant with Noali, Gen. ix. 9 & 10, 
And I, behold, I establifeh my covenant with 
you, and with your seed after you; and with 
every living creatuie that is with you, of the 

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fowl, of the cattle, anipf every beast of the 
earth with you j from^U that go out of the 
ark, to every beast of the earth. He also 
commands that they shall partake of that rest 
on the Sabbath which he has appointed for 
man,Exod.xx.lO, But the seventh day is the 
sabbath of the Lord thy God : in it thou shalt 
not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy 
daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy maid-ser- 
vant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is 
within thy gates, xxiii. 12, Six days thou 
shalt do thy work, and on the seventh day 
thou shalt rest; that thine ox and thine ass 
may rest, and the son of thy handmaid and 
the stranger may be refreshed. 

Man is also enjoined to assist and show 
lenity to the brute part of the creation, Deut 
XXII. 4, 6 & 7, Thou shalt not see thy broth- 
er's ass or his ox fall down by the way, and 
hide thyself from them ; thou shalt surely 
help him to lift him up again. If a bird's nest 
chance to be before thee in the way in any 
tree,or on the ground, whether they be young 
ones or eggs, and the dam sitteth upon the 
young, or on the eggs, thou shalt not take 
the dam with the young; But thou shalt in 
any wise let the dam go, and take the young 
to thee: that it may be well with thee, and 
that thou mayest prolong thy days. And our 

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Saviour commends acts of mercy shown to 
animals^Math.xii. 1 1 , And he said unto them» 
Whatman shall there be among you that shall 
have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the 
sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it, and 
lift it out? Luke xv. 4, What man of you, 
having an hundred sheep, if he lose one of 
them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in 
the wilderness, and go aRer that which is lost, 
until he find it ? As a further proof of God's 
regard for the brutes, we may see that it was 
partly upon their account that,He was pleas- 
ed to spare from the impending destruction 
that threatened that spacious city ofNinevehf 
Jonah IV. 11, And should I spare Nineveh, 
that great city, wherein are more than six- 
score thousaiid persons that cannot divscern 
between their right hand and tlieir left hand ; 
and also much cattle ? For we are informed 
by the writings of the same prophet in. 7&8,^ 
That the.beabts as well as men were clothed 
in sackcloth, and commanded by the king of 
Nineveh to fast, and cry mightily unto God, 
and turn from their evil ways,thatthey might 
avert the ruin that hung over them. 

We are certain that, previous to man's fall, 
the brutes were made, and eii;o ed a more 
perfect and happy state than at present; for 
we are informed by Mubes tliat^ their Maker, 

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flfter dueir fbrmation^pronoiiBGed them ^p&SL 
3%iey wese plaeed in the ganden of Eden, and 
enjoyad all its privileges and sweel; repose^ 
as well ^3 maa,-^They did eot of ks delidU 
cms fniks) and sported harmlssslj together 
undjpr the 499oi and cefreshuig shadow of its 
green spreading trees- — ^Their drink was from 
tiie pure and purling stream which^i^emoifi* 
ture to t^is earthly Paradise — ^Their beds 
were among the lilies and isweet scented flow-* 
ers^ and t^ieir covering the gold^^tinted canopy 
of heaven, 

jPrile tiie9 yvsiriiQt^ mr wts, UmU pride to aid ; 
Man wfJk'd with foeast, joint tenant of the shade i 
The same his table, ^nd the same his bed ; 
No murder cloth'd iiim^ and no murder fed. 
Ill fhe same temple, the resounding wood* 
All vocai beings hymn'd their equal God* 

In this innocent and happy state they would 
have continued immortal, had not man, by 
his disobedience, offended the great Author 
of his being* 

As we now see from what original the 
cause of their misery has sprung; doth it oot 
therefore become us, to strive to alleviate 
their sufferings to the utmost of our power, 
and to show that charity towards them, as 
their several cui^es require^ as we wish thq 

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angels in heaven, onr siiperiors, to show unto 
us? — They arp part of God's creation and 
care as well as we, and sprung from the same 
materials : for God said,— 

" Let %V iwirtii brii^ fonh soul liyitigm het IcinJ, 
Catt)e»,s(Qd Qreeping thiugs, and bSwst of Ih* earth» 
Each in their kind. The earth obey'd, and straight 
. . . Op'nihg h er fertile womb teem'd at a birth 
Innumerous living creatures, perfect forms, 
Limb*d SLf^d full grown ; out of the ground up-roseit 
As from his lair, the wild beast where he wons 
In foVest wild, in thicket, brake, or den ; 
Among the trees in pairs they rose, they walk*d; 
^he cattle in the fields and meadows green : 
Those i*are and solitary, these in flocks 
Pasturing' at once, and in broad herds up sprung. 
13be gri$$y clods now, calv'd; now. half appeared 
Xbe'tuwny lioof pawing to get free 
His hinder parts, then springs as broke from bonds 
And rampant shakes his brinded *nane : the ounce. 
The Ubbard) and tlie tyger, as t)ie njole. 
I^ising, the crumbl'd earth above them tlirew 
111 hillocks : the swift stjig from under ground ; 

j^ore up his branching head : scarce from his mould 
Behembtli/b^gest b(N:ii of earthy upheav'^ 
His vastness : fleec'd the flocks and bleating rosQ^ 
As plants : ambiguous between sea and land 
The river horse jond ac»ly crocodiie. 
' , At. once camie forth whatever creeps the groundj» 
% Insect or worm : those wav'd their- limber fens 
For wings Imd- smallest lineaments exact 
In^all the livcrieSi jk^kTd qf sumnierNs pride. 
With spots of gold and purple^^azure and green : 
' These as a line their long dimension drew, 
Strenking the ground with sinuous trace ; not aO ' 
IdPUmfe of ifiature ; some of serpent kind. 

" ■ " c • 

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Wondrous in lengih and corpulence, involv'd 
Their sGSiky fofds, and added wings. 
The parsimonious emmet, provided, 
Of future, in small room large heart inclos'd« 
Pattern of just equality perhaps 
Hereafter, join*d in her popular tribes 
Ofcommonarty : swarming next appeared 
The female bee, that feeds her husband drone 
DeliciouKly, and builds her waxen cells 
With honey 8tor*d: the rest are nomberless/' 

Their misery originated with man; and it is 
quite unfeeling to deny them a place equal, 
if not superior to that from which they fell 
by man^s transgression. — They were man's* 
companions in paradise in the days of his 
primitive innocence: — ^they have shared with 
him the bread of bitterness, and they have 
drnnk with him of that cup of woe that springs 
daily from the curse })ronounced upon the earth 
'for his sake: why not allow them a portion 
of tliat liappiness which he anticipates from 
immortality? By allowing them tliis, it does 
not rob him of anj share of his meditated 
pleasure, nor.derog^ethe smallest iota from 
the honour nbr glory of God, the father of all, 
and wise patent of tfie universe. Should they 
utterly perish, or be annihilated, as, is the too 
prevalent atid uncharitable belief of many, 
what gainers are such believers thereby ? It 
maybe argued by some that, such a belief 
will neither add to, nor diminish their com- 

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forts; nor such an unbelief tend in the smal- 
lest to lessen ihe perpetual miseries to which 
the brute creation aie daily made subject hj 
merciless and crueJ tyrants: but man being 
solely the cause of all the hardships which 
they presendy undergo, a belief in their im- 
mortality would go a great length witii some 
to ward off an impending cruelty. It isjiowr 
ever, our duty to mitigate their harsh treat- 
ment as much as lies in our power^ud not to 
add affliction to the afflicted, but rid them of 
as muc;h of their trouble as circumstances will 
permit^ whetjier they shall rise again^ or whe- 
ther they shall noUr-^we must, and give an 
accouptof fHir conduct while on eartli, whe- 
ther good or bad. He who was con$id,ered 
to be the wisest of men says, Prov, xii. lO^i 
A righteous mmi regardeth the life of his 
beast: but the tender mercies of the wi^^ved 
are cruel. And, to use the language of the 
erudite Addison, wh^n speaking of the Im- 
mortality of the Soul, he says, " If I am 
wrong, in believing that the souls are im- 
mortal; I please myself in my mistake: nor 
while I live, will I ever chuse, that this opin- 
ion, wherewith I am jro much delighted, 
should be wrested from me: but if, at deaths 
1 am to be annihilated, as some minute phi- 

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losophers imagine, I am not afraid lest those 
i^rise men, when extinct tdo should laugH ax 
my errors." We may also add, without pre- 
sumption that, by believing this doctrine we 
win Tbe none the worse ; whereas, vice versd^ 
we may be gainers, particularly the peace in 
blir own consciences^ and the brutes may Be 
doubly so, by our being taught to respect 
lliem as they deserve, and to show that kind- 
ness which every christian and philanthropic 
person must unavoidably commend. • 

That tkere shall be an universal rest:itution 
of all ihaft'fell by Adam's transgressidn ; when 
air that was lost in the first Adam shall hi 
ter>ewed in the selcoild.— That there shall b* 
^ new heaven and a new earth, which* sh^ 
be the habitation of righteousness ; God hatli 
abiijidantly and plainly promised, by the 
mouth of hiis holy prophets knd apostles, sihe^ 
the world began. Isaiah lxv. 17, For, be- 
hold, I create nfew heaVens, and a new earth: 
and the former shall not be remembered, nbf 
come into my mind. Lxvi. 22, For as i\i^ 
new heavens^ and the new earth, which I will 
make, shall remain before me,saith the Liord, 
^o shall your seed and your name remain. 
2 Peter n|. 13, Nevertheless we, according 
to his promise, look for new heavens and a 
new earth, wherein dsvelleth righteouhess! 

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ftev. XXI. 1, And I saw a new heaven and a. 
new earth: for the first heaven and the first 
q^th were passed away; and there was* v\o 
more sea. The scripture also declareih, i 
Cor,xv»2l &22, For since by man came deal 1;, 
by man came also the resurrection of the 
dead* For as in Adam all die, even so in 
Chiist shall a// be made alive. 

Some are at a loss hoi^ to dispose of the 
animal creation if their resurrection be to 
everlasting life, as we are plainly told in the 
foregoing texts; but as this new earth so of- 
ten mentioned^ will not be made in vain, nor 
have we any cause to think it will be desti- 
tute of inhabitants : what, if we should sup- 
po e it set apart for the reception of these 
animals after their reanimation,and the union 
of their souls with the bodies: for we are in- 
formed by Paul in his Epistle to the Romans, 
viii. 21 & 22, The creature itself also shall 
be delivered froni the bondage of corruption 
into the glorious liberty of the sons of God. 
For we know that the wliole creation groan- 
eth and travaileth in pain together until now. 
What more would man require, or in what 
plainer language to prove the justice of our 
claim, tlien these texts? It is alsocertain,that 
God made nothing in vain,and that the brutes 
have been created for some wise and good 

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purposes, we must firmly believe^ although 
unknown to us for the present. ' ^ . - 
Among their apparent uses to us, in the 
gradual chain of bfeings thkt descends from 
the Great Creator to the least creature, they 
form a link between man and the inanimate 
creation. ' ' ' 

Far as creation's ample range extends, 
The Ejcale of ^^nsu^, mentuisd powers Ascendi : 
Mark how it mounts to man's imperial race, 
From the green myriads in the peopled grass : 
What nlodes of sight betwixt each frideektrfime. 
The mole's dim culrtain, and the lynx's beam ! 
or smell, the headlong lioness between. 
And hound sagaciiins on the" tainted green : ' 
Of hearing, from the life thf^ ffi)^ the flood, 
To that which warbles thro* the vernal wood : 
The spider^s touch, how exquisitely fine | 
F^els at each thread, and lives Hking the ^ine ; 
In the nice bee, what sense so subtfy true ' 
From pois'nous herbs extracts the healing due. 
How insttnct varies in the grov*ling swin6, 
' Compar'dhalf-reas'ning elephant, with thine! 
'Twixt that; and reason, what a nice barrier I 
For ever sep'rate, yet for ever near ! 
Remembrance and reflection how ally'd ; 
^bai thin partitions sense from thought divi4fs : 
And middle natures how thev long to join, 
* Yet never pass th* insuperable line f 
Without this jikst gradatloby could they be 
Subjected t^ese to those, or all to thee ? 
The pow'rs of all subdu'd by thee alone, 
Is not thy reason all these pow'^rs in one ? 

See thro' this atr, this ecean^ and this .earthy 
All matter quicks and burstbg into birth. 
Above, hour hijgh progressiva fife may go ! 

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Aroundy how wide ! how deep extend below ! 
Tlist diainof ^^l:^! which from QoclJ^e^;ap^ 
IJature- ethereal, human, angel, man, 
peast, bifd', fish, inseti 1 what no ^ye can feee, 
Kd ^lats dan r^och ! from infinite to th^e^ ' 
' Frona thee to nothing — On superior powW 
Were we to press, iiiferior might on ours; 
Or in the ^ast creation leave a void, * * 
Where, one step brokeEn, the great scale's destroyed i 
From nature's ^chain whatever link you strike, 
Tenth, or ten thousandth, breaks the chain 'alike. 

When we observe siich a wondertVil gradation 
of beauty, form, perfectiou and proportion', 
in the several parts of matter, through the 
animal, vegitable, and mineral kingdoms; 
through all the species of fossilsj plants and 
anihials, up to the human body: it must, to 
a rational and attentive mind, be a wide and 
unnatural chasm in tli^e nature of things, if 
there were nothing between dead matter and ^ 
the human soul. And, on viewing this, we 
need be no ways astonished at the sudden 
but sublime exclamation of the royal bafd<— 
Wha£ is nian, that thou art mindful of him ? 
and the son of man, that thou visitest him "? 
This scheme is tormed on thephilbsophi- 
cal principle of the graduated scale of intelr 
ligenCes, and of entities in general ; wbich 
m^iiiiitains that there is no chasm or break 
frpin God, the Fountain of being, to the low- . 
est inorganiised partide^pf matter, or atom: 

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and that all proceed from the indrVisifele paro- 
tide of inert matter ^ through diflferefnt forms 
of organized being, up to animal life ; and 
through difFijrent degrees of animal life up 
to intellectual ; and through various degrees 
of intellectual life up to Gor), Matter be'uig 
more perfect as it approaclies to, or arises 
from inertnesSf to organization ; organization 
being more or less perfect as ir a|)proaches tOj* 
or arises from vital it if ; vitality being more 
or less perfect as it approachei? to, or recedes^ 
from intellectual existence ; and intellectual 
existence being more or less perfect as it ap- 
proaches to, or recedes from the Ens Entiu:^ 
or God, This scheme also supposes that, all 
orders of created beings are connected by cer- 
tain linJcs^ which partake of the nature of the 
beings in the ascending 2LnA descending scale : 
e. g. ANIMALS and vegetables are linked to- 
gether by the polype^ or plant^ariimal ; fowls 
and reptiles, by the bat; fishes and bi asts, 
by the hippopotamus; quadrupeds and man, 
by the ouran-outang ; and man and angels, 
by men of extraordinary powei's, such asi 
P/a/o among the ancients, and Sir Isaac New^ 
tony &c, among the moderns. 

Again, if we still maintain that brutes shall 
have no place in the new heaven or new earth 
(previously described) we must then, very 

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naturally suppose that, none lower than ma^ 
wiH partake of, or epjoy this blessing. Were 
fhi^ the case, man woiilj not by any means, 
{i. e. comparatively speaking,) be so happy 
is when surrounded by ay host of inferiors. 
Two reason? may be assigned for this seem- 
ingly iricongrviiiy : — in ^ne first place when, 
by coniparison, we find suph an innumerable 
cbinpany of interior creatures, we doubly re- 
joice in our wisdom and superiority : foi% 
were there ho degrees of comparison of great- 
ness; hut lall enjoying the sam^ perfection arid 
habplnes^, the ^amenqss of the company ani^ 
scene would so weary a inintl given to change, 
in the course of tiqpie that, all pleasure ^nd 
simnitii(}p would become burdensome and 
nainlul; We kno^ tha^ God, at first, coiili 
have created ^lid mad^ iis all equal; but he 
knew that it was necessqry for our happir^ess 
to create inferior and depepdent beings, and 
to continue them through tirrie and eternity. 
For instance, were all rfiaijfeiTjid borq kings, 
how much more happy would tliey be than 
if born beggers — none? It is but by the de- 
pendence one person has upon another, and 
the success of his progress through life, (i e. 
morally speaking,) that he carf be happy. — p 
'fbe beggar depends upon tlip bounty of the 
higher sublect ; and (liis' subject uppn tjie 

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favour of some greater one; and so on in u 
continued chain of graduated fortune from 
the lowest to the highest. Some place their 
happiness in their boasted favour with Grod, 
and their hope of obtaining a place in the 
kingdom of heaverk. Others in their superior 
knowledge, &c. while many think themselves 
the favourites of their Creator by their being 
permitted to live an easy life, and to feast 
sumptuously every day, while many others, 
their superiors in wisdom ami goodness^are 
struggling with penury and want. There can 
be no just inference drawn from this,, not is 
it any criterion to walk by, that man, although 
wallowing in luxury ^nd ea&e^ is any mote 
the favourite of heaven than those of the sarae 
species; or many of the brute kind that arc 
racked with pain,^and pining in misery j but 
rather tlie reverse, for we daily s^^e the sinful 
mai;! living in voluptuousness, while the ser* 
vant of God hath neither food nor raiment, 
nor a place of safety to lay his head — the sun 
shineth on the evil and the good. 

From these preraises,we may see that, it is 
not always those who enjoy this world in its 
greatest perfection, that will enjoy the new 
heaven and the new earth; much less those 
who contemn the miserable sufferers for bein^ 
what they of themselves cannot help. For 

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the ox, or thie sheep, that is considered the 
fevourite of its masler or owner,and is fed in' 
greefn pastures every day, is the soonest to 
be sacrificed to his rapacious appetite. And 
man, while enjoying all the delicasies and 
comforts of life here; while th§ cup of pros- 
perity bubbles over the brim, still he cannot 
boast of to-morri>w, for even to-day his soul 
may be required of him, and that body h^ so 
much idolized and doated upon, given as a 
feast to theworm^, or be indignantly tramp- 
led upon by some unthinking clown. 

In the second place, — Variety, to the.mind 
of man, is absolutely necessary for complet- 
ing its happiness, as we may see from the 
strange and disagreeable effect soon produced 
by a painter making dioice even of his most 
precious and beautiful colour, when instead 
of painting his picture or canvas with a var- 
iiety of objects and colours, he paints it all 
over with one colour and as one piece. It is 
the ^ame with regard to music: for, let the 
most exquisite piece be selected, with all the 
peaking symphony that the power of music 
can produce, still, if no other but itself be 
ever heard, how will it cloy the ear and the 
understand! ug ! 

We also know that, bad there been no lo- 
wer order of creatures on earth than man, he 

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would liave coiisiderea hitxiself tne most mis- 
erable of beipgs. — It is but by being exposed 
to tHe lury of a ratrlrig stdrra when the ocean 
ia convulsed into a tempest that, we know the 
gleasures^ or can contemplate the beauties of 
the niighty dSep in a calm: — ^but by being 
opzened and decjBived by a pretended friend 
t/iat, we know there is such a thing as a true 
fj:iend, and. now to value him :— but by feel- 
ing the distresses created by poverty that, we 
can estimate properly the comforts of plenty: 
—but by ieeU ng the craving and ravenous 
ajipetite of lulnger that, we can appreciate 
Qr relish our brdinary food: — but by being 
»ubject,and occasionally overcome with sick- 
ness that, wecaii know the Wessingsof health: 
-^-^ut by solitary confinement in prison, dr 
as ^ slave that, we know how to value libertyt 
It is, in short, but by comparison that, we 
tnow, or can distinguish between right and 
wrong, or eVil from good. Many such lik« 
contrasts reconcile us to our present condi- 
tion in life, and enable us to go through the 
world rejoicing. 

Some harg and some drown, some run to despair, 
By tliinking ^hat none are so wretched as they are : 
^ would ease them to look round, and see m^nyofffsr 
That live worse, and yet ne'er make such a pother. 

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Btutes are \iy Hiknf cotihted void off eason , 
t&^liich is hot th6 c^lse, ks We have, and shall 
fetther ptovfe t6ddeirioiistiiitiori,m th^ course 
^f the pi-fesiettt \*^oi-k. They are also counted 
ihtA;^able offfeHgibttj I. e, of serving or givincr 
gloty iintb God their makfef ; this is ihcorrect: 
for we kre told by the prophet Isaiah XLlit, 20, 
The beasts of the fi^ld, the dragons and the 
dMjr 3hdir hdffoiir God. And the divlhely 
inisj>\r6d David,. Psalms cxtvtii. 10, calls upon 
die Befits, ^M all cattle; creeping things, 
^nd flj^ing fowl, to praise the Lord. 

ChipiiStbmj also, says. The true worship 
of God cohsfisteth in sf^irjt and truth. — Do 
Mt thef^fore, the winged tenants of the air, 
When thfejr fisef tidvti their deWy bed at early 
daWn, and listlessly float througli th^ blue 
afether oh downy pinion, address their first 
ioti^ <rf thanksgiving arid ptaise to the glory 
of th€( author of their exiiStence? And, do 
xiot therr evening niattins spring from tl;ie 
same scrtirse HfMtlx ahd loVe? , 

The subtil serpeftt hj^d his moral rules ; 
Yes, who but fqols imagine brytes wpre fools f 
Sbine brutes ^'n ^tfll express a mora! mind» 
At leist to efalUlate—4ia^', shame mankind. ' 

And Dr. Young says, — 

Less differs man from beast, tlian maij from ma». 


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Were we to analyze the best works of many 
of those who carry about with them the hu- 
man form, we would find them destitute of 
that which cliaracterizes the christian and 
virtuous person: and if put into the scale pf 
oratitude and love with those of many of the 
brute species, we would find the balance pre* 
ponderate in favour of the latter. 

Philosophers have been much puzzled 
about the essential characteristics of brutes^ 
by which they may be distinguished fronr 
man. Some define a brute to be an animal 
not risible, or a living creature incapable of 
laughter; others call them mute animals. 
The Peripatetics allowed them a sensitive 

?ower, but denied them a rational one. The 
]ator)ists allowed them reason and under- 
standing, though in a degree less pure and 
refined than that of man. J^actantius allows 
every thing to brutes which men have, ex- 
cept a sen§e of religion, and even tliis has 
been ascribed to them by some. Descartes 
maintained that, brutes are mere inanimate 
machines, absolutely destitute not only of 
reason but of all thought and perception, and 
that all their actions are only consequences 
of the exquisite mechanism of their bodies. 
This system, however, is much old* r than 
Oe&carjtt^s j it was borrowed by him from 

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6omez Pereira, a Spanish physician, who 
employed thhty years in composing a treatise 
which he entitled Antoniana Margarita^ from 
the Christian names of his father and mother, 
M was published hi 1454: but hisopinion^ 
had not the honour of gain iivg pari izans, or 
even being refuted ; so that it died with him. 
Even Pereira seems not to have been tht^ in- 
ventor of thisnotion; something like it having 
been held hy some of the ancients, as we find 
irom Plutarch and St, August in. Others who 
rejecteid Cartesian hypothesis, liave maintain- 
ed that brutes are endowed with a soul es- 
sentially inferior to that of men ; and to this 
soul somehav^ allowed immortality^ others 
not. And, lastly, in a treatise published by 
one Bougeant a Jesuit, entitled, " A philo- 
sophical amusement on the language of 
beasts," he affirms that they are animated by 
ex il spirits or devils. 

The opinion of Descartes was probably in- 
vented, or at least adopted by him, to defeat 
two great objections : one against the immor- 
tality of the souls of brutes, if they were 
allowed to have any; the others against the 
goodness of God, in suffering creatures who 
had never sinned, to be subject to so many 
nuseries. The arguments in favour of it may 
be stated as follows: 1. It is certain, thati* 

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lill^^bpr of human actions are Ep€irply m?cV. 
^nical : because il\ey are done imperceptibly 
\o the agent, and without any directioi^ from 
the win ; which are to be ascribed to the inai- 
pressioQ of objects and tlie primordial dispo- 
sition af the machine, wherein the influence 
of the soul has no share ; of which numbey 
are #11 habits of the body acquired from tb^ 
reit^rajtjon of certain actions. In all such 
cirpunistances, human beings are no better 
(ban automata,. 2. There are some natural 
njoyements so involuntary that we caftpot 
irea^tifaitt ^em : for example, that admirable! 
mechanism eyer on th? watch to preserve ait 
equilibrium, when we stoop, bend, or incline, 
our bodies in any way, and wheiji. vfe walk up?» 
on a narrow plank. 3. The natural liking 
for, and antipathy against certain objects, 
which in children precede the power o^ 
knowing them, and which sometingies ia 
grown persons triumph over all the effocts of 
reason ; 9-re all phenomena to be accounted 
for from the wonderful mechanism of the 
body, and are $o many cogent proofs of that 
irresistable influence which objects have on 
the human frame. 4. Every one knows how 
much our passions depend on the degree of 
motion into which the blood is put, and th^ 
reciprocal impre^sipns caused by the »niroa|c/ 

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spirits between the heart ai^d brain, that are 
so closely connected by their nerves; andii' 
such effects may be produced by such simple 
mechanical means as the mere increase o? 
motion in the blood, without any direction ol' 
the will, We are not to wonder at the actions 
of brutes being the effects only of a refined 
mechanism, withojut thought or perception. 
5. A tartlier proof will arise from a consider- 
ation of the many wonderful effects which 
even the ingenuity of men has contrived to 
bring about by mechanical means; theaudro- 
ide, for instance, of Mr.JKempell, which plays 
at chess. Now, it is not to be questioned, 
but that the medianism of the body of the 
meanest animal infinitely surpasses that of 
Air. Kempell's machine; and what can be 
the consequence of this, but that the actions 
of that animal must be proportionally more 
surprising than those of the wooden chess- 
player ? 

The above is a short abstract of all the ar- 
guments that are brought in favour of the 
Cartesian system : but tliey are evidently very 
far frorti being conclusive. 

, The most rational opposers of the Cartesian 
scheme maintain that, brutes are endowed 
with a principle of ^ ensation as well as we 
though of an mferior nature to ours. Great 


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disputes, however, have arisen on thb »ubjecfc| - 
some maintaining tbat^the souls^ of brutes are* 
merely sensitive, and that they are altogether 
destitute of reflection and understanding; 
others, that they not only r^ason^but make a 
better u >e of it tlian man do. That the brutes 
are endowed only with sensation, and totally 
destitute of all power of reflection, or even 
reasonings is what can by no me^ns be main- 
tained on good grounds; neither can it be 
asserted that they can act entirely from i»- ' 
stinct, or a blind propensity to certain things^ 
without knowing why or wherefore. In 
numberless instances,needlcss to be mention- 
ed here, but which will readily occur to every^ 
reader, it is evident, that education will get^ 
the better of many of the instincts of brutes; 
which could never be the case were they ab- 
solutely incapable of reasoning. On the 
other hand, it is equally certain^ that they 
are by no means capable of education in the 
same degree that men are ; neither are the 
rational exertions of beasts at all to^be com** 
pared even with those of the meanest savages; 
One remarkable of- this is in the use of the 
element of fire. The most most savage na- 
tions have known how to make this element' 
subservient to their purposes ; or, if tiome 
have been found who have-been entirelyLig- 

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n^rant ofit9^ ei&isten^y tbey h^rre-qtiiGl^JK 
ldari»ed its ttses.on seeing it nrnde use of l^. 
others. : but though many of the bnoe crea*' 
tures are dfelighted with warmth^ and havi^ 
opportumties every day of seeiog how firei«* 
supplied with foej, and by that means^ preserw 
ved^ it never was known t^at one of them at- 
tempted to preserve a fire by this means. 
This firhows a strange defect of rationaHtyj 
unaccountable upoft a»y other supposition 
than that the soul or sentient principle of 
brutes^ is^ some how or other inferior in- its 
nature to that of n^aii^; butstilJ it is a senti- 
ent principle, capable of perceptions a^quiek^ 
ami in many instancefs much mo^e so than our 

Ffttlier Bougeant snppoits his opinion of 
the spit tt» of brute creatures being devils irt 
the mil owing nmnner: Having proved at 
large that beasts naturally have understands 
ing, "Reason (says he) naturally inclines us 
to believe that beasts have a spiritual soul ; 
anditheowly thing thati opposes tliis: senti- 
ment isi the consequences that mi >ht be in- 
ferred from it. If brutes have a soul, that 
that soiU -must be either matter or spirit 5 itv 
must, be one of the two, and yet you dareaf- 
firmrneither* A'ou da^e not say itis matter^ 
beca^ you imist- then necessarily suppose t 

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matter to be capable of. thinking ; nor will 
you say that it is spirit, this opinion bringing 
with it consequences contrary to the princi- 
ples of religion ; anil tliis, among others, that 
man would differ from beasts only by the de- ; 
grees of plus and minusj [more aiid less] 
which would demolish the very foundation 
of all religion.* Therefore, if 1 can elude all 
these consequences; if I can assign to beasts 
a spiritual* soul, without striking at the doc- 
trines of religion; it is evident, that my sy- - 
stem, being the most agreeable to reason, is 
the only warrantable hypothesis. Now I 
shall, and can do it, with the greatest ease 
imaginable. I even have means,by the same 
method, to explain many obscure passages in 
the Holy Scriptures, and to resolve some 
very great difficulties which are not well con- 
futed. This we shall unfold in a more par- 
ticular manner. 

* »mtm n fm0fmmim 

* This reasoning is absurd. Why not the souls of brules 
di£Per in degrees of plus and minus £rom the souls of ineo in 
heaven, as well as their bodies on earth, which we have alrea- 
dy shown in the scale of gradation from the Great Creator of 
the umverse, to the least animalcule ? — We are told there are, 
different orders and degrees of angels in heaven ministering be- 
fore the Throne of God. And we are also told there will be 
different degrees of happiness appointed for the saints' and auff*- 
tyrs who have sealed the cause with their 4)lood« 

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^^ Be]tgioi» teaphe? «?, th^t the devils, from 
t^ie very moment they \\^ sinned, were rpr 
probate, and th^t tbey were dftQlPed to burn 
for eve? in hell ; but the churph h^ not yet 
det^rfi[iinpd whether they do ^ptvially eqduri^ 
the torments to which they are condemned? 
It niay then be thought that they do x\o% yet 
suffer them, and th^t the ei^ecutipn of th^ 
verdict brought ag^ln^t them i^ reserved for 
the day of the final jv\dgment.-^Now what I 
jpretppd to infer from hence i$*that,till doojii9r 
day pomes, Qod, i« Qrd^- not to suffer so 
to]anv legions p| reprobate spb itsi to be of no 
ill$e, nas distributed them throui^h the several 
places of the world,, ta serve tne des^ns of 
his Provid^ice, and make Lis omni{)ottaice to 
uppeer* Some continuing in their natu) ai 
state, Uwy themselve&in terapiini^ men, in se- 
c^^ing andtormenlingtbem ; either immed- 
lately 9 as Job's devils aud those that by hold 
of hujoaii bodies; or by the iiiiniirf:rv ofsor-t 
cepers or phantoms. These wicked spirits 
are those whomi the scripture calls the pbwera 
of darkness, or the powers of the air. (jiod^ 
with thie others, makes millions, of beasts of 
allf kinds, which si^rve for the uses, of men, 
which fill the universe, ajid ca^iise the wisdom 
and onmjipotence of the Creatoi? ta be adrair^ 
.^ By that meansL 1 (^ easily jcoacei¥e> on 

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..^^ 46 

the one hand, how the devils can tempt us; 
and on the other, how beasts can think,know, 
have sentiments, and a spiritual soul, with- 
out any way striking at the doctrines of reli- 
gion. I am no longer surprised to see them 
have forecast, memory and judgment. I 
should rather have occasion to wonder at 
their having no more, since their soul very 
likely is more perfect than ours. But I dis- 
cover the reason of this : it is because, in 
beasts as well as in ourselves, the operations 
of the mind are dependent on the material 
organs of the machine to which it isunit^; 
and those organs being grosser and less pel^ 
feet than in us, it follows, that the knowledge, 
the thoughts, and the other spiritual c^^er- 
ations of the beasts, must of course be less 
perfect than ours: And if these proud spirits 
know their own dismal state, what a humi- 
liation must it be to them thus to see them- 
selves reduced to the condition of blasts! 
But, whether they know it or not, so shame- 
Jul a degradation is still, with regard to them, 
the primary effect of the divine vengeance I 
just mentioned; it is an anticipated hell.** 

Having mentioned the prejudices against 
this h3rpothe8is, such particularly as the plea- 
sure which people of sense and religion take 
in beasts and birds, especially all sorts of do- 

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meatic animals; he proceeds, " Do we Id?*; 
beasts fur tlieir own sakes ? No. As they are. 
sltogetiier strangers to human society, they- 
can have no other appointment but that of 
being useful and amusing.* ' And what care 
we whether it be a <levil or any other crea-r 
ture that amuses us? The thought of it, far 
from shocking, pleases me mightily. I with 
gratitude admire the goodness of the Crea-. 
tor, who gave me so many little devils to 
serve and amuse me. If 1 am told that these. 

* Few will agree with this : for. it must be obvious to all 
those who view things aright that, there are many thousands 
of animals in the towering woods of Africa : — in the untrodden 
deserts of America : — in the moutitaiitous and snowy regioos 
of Greenland : — and in the torrid and burning zones of the la- 
dies, that are neither useful nor abusing to man ; nor were 
ever designed as such, but to be left at freedom to pursue 
their own course of pleasures. — ^There are m)n*iads of fishes 
and fowls who enjoy the same ; besides the u?iwieidy whale m 
the Greenland seas, the numerous herds of elephants which 
graze the extensive regions betwixt the river Senegal and the 
Cape of Good Hope ; and the gigantic ostrich of the sandy- 
borders of Egypt and Palestine, which roam as much at large ■ 
as the winged insect that flits from flower to flower, or the in- 
visible animalcule which swims m the liquid drop.-— The polar' 
bear of the Artie Circle, wrapt up in his shaggy x^overing, the 
ermine of Siberia in his furry mantle, and the water-fowJ with 
her thick set oily feathers, the Barbary cojv almost naked, the 
rhinoceros with his coat of mail, and the nnonstrous hippopota- 
mus, (the Behemoth of Job) range unknown to man. 

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f6l<W d^Vils are doo*riea td 4uflfei^ iUifhSl ic#- 
tateSi I admirts G6d'^ d^^r^fesi biit I havetfo 
ihAilhef of dhaf^ ill th^tt dreadful ientencfe; 
I lerfVb the ejteeiitibn of it W thb Bitvtiblta. 
JttAg^ i ttiid) notwithst^riding tht^, ilri^e itfth 
' my Jhtle dfevils at^ I do With a liitiltitUde of 
pfcfopllej t)f WHottt religion \hfatink tae £liSta 
J}«at nurhbet ihall be dafttlned. Bttt the 
ctffcJ df a ^ejudice is not ib he effected m a 
itiditient: it is dortfe by ihxi^ knd rfefl^ciioti : 
git^ me leiave <hdft lightly £b ibtiiAi tipon this 
difficulty, in order to observe a very import- 
ant thing to you. 

" Persuaded as W€f are that beasts hav^ift- 
teHigertcfe*, ha'^e we not all of us a th6u^an<J 
times pitied them for the excessive evils which 
the majority ate Exposed to/ amd In realit_f 
stiffef? How unhdfppy is the condition of 
horses j we are apt to say upon seeing a 
horsie whom an unmerciful carman ismurder- 
iiig with blows. How miserable is the dog 
whom they are breaking for hwrif ing ! How 
dismal is the fete of beasts Hvirig \n wocrda ! 
tliey are perpetually exposed to tlie injuries 
of the weather; always seized with appreh^- 
slotts of becoming the prey of hunters, or 
some wilder animal; for ever obliged, aftef 
long fatigue, to look out for some po&r InSli 
pid food; ofi.en suffering cruel hunger; and 

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mm W^ Stubiect tp 9. mufti tude of miserly 
^l^t ovpfwttelm l;heBj, religion^ acquaiatii* 
Yith the peason of it ; y^. the being born sin- 
iie^au But wb^t (?rinate?. can beastslmve copoim 
iplitt^d bj birth to he subject to evils 30 very 
QUi^el ? Wh^t are ^e then, to think of the 
llftrrible e:^Qegi|if^s of miaeries uQcJergoup byj 
blasts? ipigeri^r in^^/ed^ f^ greater thixii^ 
tj^e eiidured by .men, Thiij i3, in any o^lijer, 
system^ap incomprehensible roy '^tery ;.\vbere-, 
as nothing is more j^f^y to be conceived frorar 
z^/m/ 1 propose. Therd^ellious spirit^ deseirvA 
^pi4n|s^hn3ient s,tillmore rigorous, and h^ppj^ 
it is fop tbeaia that their punishment is defkir*^ 
lied- in a word, Ggd's goodness is vindicatrs 
ec^ jxwt hiB^S|;?lf i^ jufi|ffi«it for what riglxtj 
cai^ ^e hfiye, without neqessity^ and often inu 
the w^ pf mere diversion, to tgjce.away th^ 
lifi^, of millions of beasts if G^od h^,noit#UH 
thorised "^ so to do? J^nd beasta being ar 
sei^^ble a^.ouysi/^lve^ pf |>ain ajo^ d^aili^^ ho^ 
cpiild ^ jt^sjj^ a^4 . ^^^^^^'^'^ God' havi^ given 
m^a thftt pf iyile^, if tljiey werenol so manjg 
gjf i)[tY yictimsr <M tljp diviue vengewoe? 
.. '^ Bui;, heaf atijil t^m^hii^g more cqnvinc^ 
Jtt&; ^^4 of g'^pi^ cjc^ns^qgepce: beasts, bw 
i]^^^f ft^.^ ^xtie^fef vif4wsy^ We.i;now weft 

Uv. '- ■ -- ' *f' 

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99 . 

that they neret sm, because they art libt^fets^ 
but this is the only condition wanting ta 
Mftake them sinners. The voracious birck ariiS 
beMtsof prey are crueL Many ins^tahdf 
#ne and the same species.devour one aiiother<i 
iCats are perfidious and ungrateful ; monkeyi 
are mischievous; and dogs envious, r AU 
beasts in general are jealous and reve^igefiil 
to excess; mpntion many other .viees 
we observe in them: and at tneMunetWik 
Ihat they are by nature so very vicloiis«iiw3D 
have,8g,y we, neither the liberty nor any^el|^ 
t6 resist the bias that hurries ; them Into sot 
ihany bad action^. Ti^ey are, accprdiptg;tci. ' 
the schools, necessitated to do evil,ta4ia«t>Q«< 
cert, the gener?.! prdey, to commit wkatf^ec 
IS mc^t contrary to the notion wehaveMcdT 
natural justice and of the principle of virtiiei^ 
What monsters arte; these i|i a world ofagia'aW 
ly created for order and ji^ice to reign . in?. 
This is, in good part, i^hat formerly persuade 
ed the Manicheans, that there were of neces«e 
sity two orders of thipgs, one ^^opd, and an^ 
either bad, and that the b^a^ts were riot/the 
work of the good principle; a monstrous w«t) 
Tor! But how then shall we believe theki 
beasts came out of the hands of their Oeatpr> 
with qualities so very strange! If maRiKi»cNi[ 
^ry wicke4 ^ndcorrupt^ it is because i»JUuM 

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Cttr^Chat Godhad given him at his^ creation.* 
JDf two things, then, we must say one; eithev 
that God has takert delight in making beaste 
8D^ vicious as they iire, and of giving m theii 
modek of ivhatis mosi shameful in theworldj 
irihat they have, like maft, original sin, which 
fcajspervBrtM tlieir primitive nature. f 

Z'^^ The first of these proposrtions finds ver^ 
difficult ^access tothe iniffd, and isan^kprass 
qpnlradiction totlie holy scrip tinges; whicb 
f»^r that whatever cMtie out of God's handsj 
ifcthte time of the creation of the worM, wad 
' goo^f yea very good. What good can th^re 
Se in a. monkey's bfeing so v^ry mi^tchievoua^ 
adog$k>ifull of envy, it cat so mpiiciotis?» 
But tteeti naany authors have pretended, *hatr 
beairts, betore man's fall, were different from 
i^hat they are now; and that it #as in ordei^ 
to pimish man th«)t they became so wicked.' 
But this, opiniosi is a meire supposition of 
which tlieFe^is not the least ftM>tstep in holj^ 
scrrpfcofe.' Itisi a piitifuJ subterfuge to elude 
a^rbal difficuky : this at most might be feaid o^ 
the beasts with whom man has a sort of cor-^*- 
xfes^ndence; but not at all of the birds, fisliA 
es, mad insects, which have no manner of re^ 
lation to him. We must then have recourse 
taldmiseeond.pcopositioAi That tlie natu»r 

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*6f b^iists has, lil^e that bf mafi, bfeen col^iip^' 
•^^d by same original sin : Another hjpotlie^^, 
void of foundation, and equally inconsistent 
\vTth reason and religion, in all the system^ 
%hich have been hitlierto espoused concern^ 
•ing the souls of beasts. What party we kvk 
to take? Why, admit of my system, and alt 
is explained. The souls of beasts are refrat- 
\or^ spirits which have made themselves 
•gitihy towards God. The sin in beasts is iTO 
Original sin ; it is a personal crime, which hai> 
■corrupted and perverted their nature in iti 
whole substarice; hence all the vices and cor*- 
ruptidn we observe in them, tho^ugh they; caA 
b^ no longer criminal, because Go3, by itT^- 
vocably reprobating the^, has at the iUvtif 
timedfvested them of their liberty.*' ^"1; 
Tliese quotations contain the strengtR^f 
^ther Bouge?ln('s hypotli€sis,'wKich alsb1ial!lf 
had its followers • but the reply to k U obvf;^ 
oUs. Be'4sts,though retnarkably TYiikchieVtJ^ 
ai-e not compMely so; tiiey are rn thauy iti-^^ 
tances' carpable of gratitude and love, wliTifi^' 
dfevils cannot possibly be. llie very Sailii 

Eassiohs that are in Ihe brut^fe exist tti^ 
uman nature j atrd if we chooser to*^rrgtrt 
from the existence of those pass'oiisi^nd'rth^ 
ascendency they have over mankind dt^soflsie 
timesr, we ma^ say with a great justic#,'^*f^ 

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tjbe souls of men are devils, as much so that 
tiie souls .of brutes are. AU that can be 
Reasonably inferred from the greater preval- 
oncy of the malignant passions among the 
brutes than among men, is, that the formei^ 
have iess rationality than men; and accprd- 
ijQgly it is found, that among savages, who 
exercise their, reason less tlian : other men, 
every speciA of barbarity is practised, with- 
out being deemed a crime. 

The misery which brutes undergo is ap- 
parent in most of their actions. Ihat they 
have the sense of feeling, &c cannot be dee- 
med, and we have 'already shown from scrips, 
tiire the precepts which are given for the al-, 
leviation of their sufferings. That they art 
also liable to death itself is never disputed. 
To account for these seeming difficulties, we 
are at no loss, without attributing it to their 
original srtn, or the devils with which father 
Bbugeant says they are possessed. They have 
no sin, neither original nor actual ; nor are 
they inhabited by devils. What we have al- 
ready said under Man's Original Sin^^ is 
sufficient, we hope, to convince our readers^ 

■*. This it a work the author intended to have published a* 
long with the present ; but, for rarious causes, it is laid aside for 

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and dxplaiii tothettt tftecaifses of the exfet- 
nal misen , and tJhe death of brtttefjr: howevefi 
for the better satisfdctioti of the unbelievmg 
few, we shall enlarge a little upon the samef 
subject here. 

In the chapter on thB HrivrAK ScrcL,* we 
have shown that^ the s^otrl k that im materia? 
and immortal part which never dies, but eit- 
dureth for ever. It is onrlythebody therefore, 
of which we have to treat in the tneantime. 
The body of brutes bemg made sufbgect to 
the curse promounced upon the eirth for 
man's drsobedlence i cons^equently ,were niade 
jJartaker of all the miseries that flowed from 
the sartie. 

' We have many passages fn sci'lpture, of* 
which we have already giv^ a few,that prove 
the existence of souls; what they are; and; 
that they unrst necessarily be iitimortaL Al- 
thongh those passages of holy writ that srpeak 
of the spiritsr of beasts, have been wrested 
not only by the ignoiant,butby many of the 
learned, and basely perverted into meanings 
f6r which they never were intended. It tan 
be no subterfuge for a sceptic. Ambiguous, 
as these passages of scripture seem- to be; we 
think ourselves sufficiently warranted. to say, . 
they <sontain all that is necessary for our con* 
viction and belief. Man being ^* the noblest* 

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#orrt of Cfbcf,'*^ wvtk made lord of' the' ^oU 
Irabitable gtobe, only a little lower than the 
angeh \ii heaven, and croi^ned with glory ahd 
hdtiour, capable of answering the great end 
of his creation J every thing on earth bein^ 
made subject to his princely authority whilef 
Be continued in an immaculate and innocent 
state, obedient to his great Creator's will. 
But he, after his desertion from his Maker, 
and the paths of iigliteOusness, lost this migh- 
ty prerogitive, and became liable to diseases 
and death, the wajjes of his rebellion. The 
earth was then cursed for his sake, and all 
the green herbage, the sweet and' vari^gatect 
flowers, and the blooming and bewitching, 
fruits whith it produced so luxuHantly, lay 
tfhdfer the anathema which followed him, ana. 
Kecattte sickly, and withered on their stalks 
iri a desponding condition, as if conscious of 
their' fate. Briars and thorns, thistles, obno^- 
ioiis atld poisonous weeds sprung up in their 
pTax^fe; No more was the green carpeted 
walk strewed with the fragrant, the healing 
and heal tit giving balm which was cropt by 
the sportive lamb as it thoughtlessly wantoned' 
by. the side of its dam; but heubauey and 
other weirds of deeper and blacker dye. 

The^ amni'als which had hitherto contribute 
ed!i6 lafgejy to the happiness of the first pair 

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of hipnan beiBgs while they continued Qhedr, 
lent to themandates of their heavenly Father; 
now beeame ravenous and ready to devoui; 
them; for they had no sooner eat^n of tfa^ 
fruits of the earth, and drunken 6f the broolc 
that bubbled by, then their natures were 
changed. — They no longer came at the qoip?^ 
mand of their master Adam ; nor considered, 
him any longer their superior, nor entitled 
to rule over them.^ — ^They shook offhis arbi-. 
trary yoke — took, the government of their 
actions under their own management, and. 
viewed him only as a tyrant and imposter.^ 
From this mortifying change taking place,.no, 
longer did the fairest of women Eve, amusp.. 
herself with the paw of the tiger, npx the 
leopard gambol before her: — the lion shooltl 
his shaggy mane in anguish, and laid at Ibis 
feet, weltering in their blood, all tha^came 
before hinu — The nightingale no longer re- 
joiced in the sylvan shades of Eden,— he 
changed his cheerful note ofioy to woe, and 
his midnight complaint is still heard in the . 
grove, — ^The lark forgot to salute her ears' 
with his hymn of praise in the morning— », 
the thrush drooped his head on the spray— 
the linnet and blackbird warbled not their 
song: — ^the robin loathed his daily repast, 
' loathe wren sickened on the willow.-^The 

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'\vo\th^ckrn^ k tertot to the flbcks grazTilg a- 
rdund j and the innocent Iamb fleiv frotn b&- 
^di*el1im. Such was the first state of things, 
ktid in Sljch a condition were th^ brutes pla- 
ced by maii^s disdbedieribe, 

Tlie brutes were no\ir compelled to seek 
abodfes for themselves— tliey had no friendly 
%-tree to shelter them from the angry apd 
itierclless elements that warred around them; 
thi^y had to bide the bitter blasts of the piti- 
less storm, and no where to lay theu^ head. 
•—To appease the calls offaature, they eat for 
their sustenance, of the produce of the eartH, 
A^liich was now metamorphosed from a life 
pleasing banquet, (a special catliolicoh,) to 
aeatlt ahdall its attendant rtiiseries: Althd* 
tRey had not been guilty of dny ^ilfiil n^§- 
lent oTduty,s(ill they became liable to man's 
irifirmtties, aiid to death itseTf, i'. 6. temporal 
death: We now see the cause of their miserjr 
and death, which began with the curse, ktiSL 
\<^ill not end till the earth be purified by fire 
af the lak day, when there will be no more 
^atha/s^xrrow, nor crjing: the lion and the 
lafiib tshall lie down toiiether, when a voung 
cKl^^sh^iH lead ihem. — Such, we hope, will 
biy tlieit* ^rtion in Llie new earth. 
*^Mdft beitig the cnuse of the fiinurtiernl)!^ 
eWt^aEeadaut on the malenul part of the 

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bnlte creationV\etiich i» the only pdrt^^Wiin 
kis reach. It w»s tlierefore not neces^if 
that their souls, or immatenal part, ^biifd 
be often introduced in scripture,-— Maft^ii^ 
told every thing that is necessary regartiltW 
them, either for his own or their good; Tlteir 
misery here is often permitted as astiWi^ilifi^ 
%o man, to pray for his forgiveness,. 6!ndti? 
abow him the evils which sin has cdusetVbi^ 
the earth; and how much he has lost bytti^ 
neglect of keeping that covenant whteh wSj? 
made with (Jod ; and how much cause he haSf 
to lament the loss of th^ kingly po\ver'%iW 
which he was at first invested: — how^aijly 
he is plugged 'into a degraded and ^IM^^ 
state, when he beholds howling around hhfw;,^ 
in all the agony of bitterst despair; ^d'tQ* 
wardly pouring curses np<m the headVif hiitf 
who was the cause of their fierce^ aind dei 
l^orable nature, those that were once hdilh-* 

nocent companions in Paradise. ^ 

, . . . - ' i '.it'\ 

*■ " * " ' « '»'**'* " * «■» ■ » i M .l.<.i< «■.... » >» fM 'I'l f I I > 1 

^ * Tbe ypraqipus^bloodrlbirsty, and savafe^ oel^re e f maay 
•f the wild animals, is heightened much l>y their feeding upon 
raw flesh with its blood, ^l^ich tlney d^xqur gre?d^. "^^tf i% 
diOy exifempilfied ' in butcher's dogs, &c. lience (tpd ccwggi-^ 
minded 'the Hebrews not to eat of fle?h with the biop^^ 4<i 
G*«.'ix.-4, Bat a^^ibn^ith^he life thereof, which isblodS therf,^ 
ttf» shall ye not eat, I/evit. xvii. 10, And whaUoever ni«S 

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■ ^iq,cpy€|ii|int bebg made with the bwrtaM 
j^ ^perfect obe^i^ice required for trial of 
^e\v iove^ they could not sin ; and in conse^ 
6[u^cie thereof not liable to that eternal puh- 
^^^^^qt which awaits the wicked and smfiil: 
^an% fifv their souls are as free of ain to-^day 
^^jii^y ^ere when they first enjoyed the 
CQnrgi^fi^y of Adam. Were we, but for a mo-** 
mjent,: to contemplate the evil that has bees 
Wj^u^t in the universe by man's fall, not* 
Ow^ to' his own posterity, but to the bmte^ 
Mid vegetable creation, we must admirr 
tk^ goodness and long suffering patience: ofi 
(fod tQ. his creature m«n^ in permitting him' 
^tU to inhabit even tiie ismaUest portion oB 
tl[iU wonderfuLwo^^^ / -** 

_ ^Brutes, by many, are said to be destitute* 
f}^,, i;ea3Q^ and reflection^ but that has n6vei? 
]^et been proved. Doth not our daily exper-^ 
ience, united to the well-a4ithenticatea itnnala^ 
ot what is termed Instinct, but which infact^ 
is reason, ahhough in many cases without re^ 
ftectkm, prove nieir sagacity and wisddm? 

■■ m ii ^ l i»ii M_HM| i> i» iii ii i iWpii ^M aArii i mm i ' —ii.!* m n ■ 1 1 rt wwii. W . M . M i M l M M I 

tK«rebe o^ttie house of Tgrael, or ofthestrang^enthatsqjoum 
fttti^n^ yo^ that eateth any manner of blood ; I will evea cefe 
my face against that soni that eateth biood, and will cut hi» 
#a|roai anioD^ hisptopl^^ 

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^;h^jr £?on<^ct; m Vk9py ^ their Mwtiiw^llye 
qper^lions, show ^ gre*^ degree qf v^as^9flr 
an4 ij«>flectipfi:— tl)^ Wrd repairs » .s^h^tt^r^ 
uji^ef^ini^teadicxf tbrmipg in^tiacitiively fttt^ ^fte: 
-7-the h€!n vjrhq bns Jb^e^^ roi>b^ qf. bar €^& 
changes liMprpla.ce, ii?i or/det to hy xU^mv^mi- 
4^t M^itb i?^qre spcurity; — tl5^e 'Cajt^iseoveya 
botH CJ^re ^nd artifice in cq^oej^ing Iwr kit- 
tf^m, AgSjinJfe is e\ddent,tbiafc<?»a^^ 
q»s^>a99 aqimals know theii; £i^Its and ]p;ua-r 
t^ke^f ^nd correc^t them ; t\\i^^ ftoin^tinie^ 
<K>njtriye the raoht ir^genioas metbods qf obr» 
^iniflg tbeir eud^> and wfben one i»ellvwl: 
]^it$ h^ye repour^p to anjOthj^r ; aAitbey hai^ 
l^ithout doubt, 9) kiDd of language f^i: tk^ 
.mutual communication of tJbyeir idea»« Hqw, 
i^ bM tbtfi tobe; $cc;Qui^t^d f^r nnlasst ^^ssp- 
fiQ^e then) andq^ad with tbe ppwer3 of per- 
ceiving, ^hinkin^ remeroberixig, cQmp«ri»g, 
tixyi judging? xbey have tiiese powers, ip- 
4eed5 in a degree inferior to tbat in wbi<^ 
tb«y ^e pqpt^essed. by the hnn^n speeie^, apd 
i^rm cJt^ei? below th^m in the graduafe^ 
scale of intelligent beings. But still it seems 
tinreasonable to exclude them from the pld6e 
which the principles qf sound philosophy^, 
ajid facts aiceritaiuedby coastawt obsejtVatjiwjf 

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9jpbeF« «C Ijbfe^ seiii«lioiv md wfelUgtn^« 

^AliiiHraK^^MicI %Mr 3Uaoe|ptifale c^thr kiitdlir^ 
«»i2rtitif iw4;&iii^tecHbl0 pasijp%indep^^ 
offlMRSttftl uttnebment an^'itatiijwl nflfeotion* iV 

tiott9«d giialHwierdailif obBtn^leinld^ai- 
^olt miiinab* ^vlici^Iiirly the dO|^ . T^e fwr 
CiUotifiii^aremcorded hy^reaiiHoct^ 
fapSity jtr :fiQ ibUt Jy.biw Bp«^gMMt'9 ehwMter of 
tbe tmrtoi is^ foimdad on ihe grosalwt Mly^ 
mui dU^^tkmr. to* b^(te«pj»ed» ^ t| o»a««ajd 
t€ti m^lmig . Wot .eoeoaraging tbe naUekHMl 
f 1eBiiam<a^*tcii*iiieiitii]g innoceoi^aiidiiarmlet^ 
atijipaiAr iCQoltaitf to the dtoHttaif of forijpiiiori 

f ' . . . . '1 • •' • * ' 

at jmH^iOiiDniuoritiFibnBal IB oneof tJmil0p«rtr 
vmma^viithe l^oirtk of Fraops, ^amieaiiMtdtil 
death M.J^ JBL-? — ^, ttir.iiieieiit jomfftairs^ 
md. fliixwfll c&limaUi»(iQ^^«» as gn^t^i^ft cqo^ 
jqumcy.! M^ , jdas.B., hidi a water spaoialttten 
4Hr}M(ilvlBi)|Mlui «Ui(tC^iwismaUifanedi;idbi^ 
bad been brought lipt^ b|i hioi^mi had^ever 
^uittodth^.. D«i£Ri SBR hab &!»% di$^ersed 
* ^^ a ^BfalieBajaSXoasa: ^DmmkaA.taka^.^|^U 
• ^ •* F' ■ . •' 

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otherg were arrested and ca^ried^intd ^ibiiii^ 
^oals;his domestics were dismissed; hm 
ine^dshsd either abandoned him^ or conceal-^ 
ed thetnselves; *he was him^self inprfson^ wd 
tmd every tbin^ in the world was silent to 
him, exi^pt his dog. Tliis faithful animat 
hm\ been refused admittance into the prisons 
He had returned to his master'a houses andb 
f^mnd it shut;^ he took refi;^ with a neighbour^ 
but this man received him with tremblittgii 
and in secret, dreading least his hdmanflkjr fott 
an animal should eonduct^him to thesei^ibl^ 
Kvery day at the same hour the dog left the 
kouse, and went to tlie door of the ipriscmj 
He was refused admittance, but he constimilfs 
passed an hoor before it, and then r^urmBcL 
His fidelity at length won upon the poiter 9 
and he was one day allowed to enters • Thk 
dog 'Saw his master, and dung tohlou^vlt 
was difficult to separate thmnfiyutdbegoaler 
Ibreed hiin' away, and th^dog returned to 
hia retreat; He came tiback the next mani# 
ing, 4ind evwy di^; ombe each day he wm^ 
admitted.'^ He. licked the handof hisfViendi 
looked kim dti^the fi»^e, again liefeed Im faaiuil^ 
and wisnt away of himself. - it 

i Wl^ the day of sentence arrived, no6witb« 
^t^ding-^ tlie^ ccowd, notwithstanding the 
guard, the dog penetrated ioto the hallf fiod- 

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^Wkdked hi rtiseJf between the legs of tbe un- 
happy man, whom hie was about to lose for 
e^jt&t4 The jjudges condemned him ; he; w»i 
. tcfeonlductecl to the pmon, and the dog for 
lliat time dklnot quit the door.^ 
Iniar arrives ; the prison opens ; the unfor- 
tunate man passes out; it- is his dog that re- 
ceives him at the threshold. He dings upon 
his hand, tlmt hand whrch so^oon must cea^e 
to pat . hia caressing head* He follows him ; 
the ^e falls; the master dies ;^ but the ten- 
dimMMofthe dog cannot cease* The body 
is earried away; the dog watkb at its side; 
tlia eAth receives it; he laya himself upon 
,1^ grave. ^ 

There he pasaed the first nighty the next 
day^ and the second night. The neighbour 
ill tlie meanrtittieunhappy^at not seeinghiiti^ 
lisks himself in parching for the dog ; gues^ 
ea5 fr<Hn the extemt of hin fidelity, the iuiylum 
h^ had chosen; fihd^liilaH eaifesses him, and 
namkes him eaL An "hour afterwards the do^ 
^MMtped, and regained bis favourite plaoe. 
!rhree months pasned away, each morning of 
Itfaiah he came to se^ his food, and then re- 
turned tP tlie grave of hia mastiw ; but each 
4i^y « hei was moPe sad^ more meagre^ 
Ptomliin^ishing, and it was. evident that he 
;lAi>^fadually r^Mhing h4s ewi. An ei^dea^ 

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hiria, but ttatture will triumph. Hetimlfthis 
^^teiis; 6i^daped; refeurned td the graves ittrf. 
never quitted it more. It was m v^^tt 
they tried to feri ng him back. They min»i@ll 
■bifti food, but he ate no longer* For €m4^ 
iawd-twenty hours toe wa« seen «mployi«g*b& 
•Weakened limbs in diggilig up the ear(lt4^ 
4^parated him from the pemain« of theJ^^Jl^ 
he had so much loved. Passion 'gave%M 
i»trength, atid he gtiad^iiMy approm^«d 4li« 
^ody^ his labours of alFeetioU^ v^e«iemfy 
incteasfedj bis effbrts became -c^s^nvuleiw^Jlte 
•shrieked iu hh struggles; h4i»'ikkh^ }i««rt 
g^ve way, and he breathed out hk Ittst g§^ 
as if he knew that he had found' Iii4» master. 

A Mtfiilat i)i^tan66 of «ibe<$on iM A- D^% 
recorded by Mn Blaine, in hi& «^ (S^iihlfe 
Pathology." - -' *^^' 

A poor tailor of this parish (^Sfe l^hvtf/) 
dying, left a small cur dog inconselaye feir 
his loss. The little anithai would ^fl^v^ 
hh liead- mastet* even for food ; and'wbat^rtr 
iie eat, was obliged to be placed it) tft(^^§Ma^ 
room with ti^e cof^. , When th* bb^^Wtt 
removed for burial, this faithful aMem^Ml 
followed the coffin. After the^fefitifiB^^tefe 
wa$ hunted cmt &£ i\^ ch4iteb-^«^'^hy^^ 

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.fffixixm. The next day he agiMQ found the 
aninpu^l, who had made his way by soin0 unt 
aceoaa table means into the inaIo9i^re,.au4 
.had dug himself a bed on the giave pf Ui^ 
masx^r. ( )nce more he^ was hunted out^ and 
«lgain h^ was found in t^^e same situation the 
foiioiKitig. day. The minister of the parish 
hearing of thv cireiunstancf^, had him c^ogl^t^ 
If^n home and fed^ and endeavoured by 
every means to win the animal's afiections ; 
l>ut they were inseparably wedded to his fete 
maBter, and he took the first opportunity of 
escape, and regain his lonely situation. With, 
t)^ .benevolence, the worthy clergy ocian per- 
mitted him to follow the beqt of his incli^ia^ 
tipn^; but to soften the rigour of his fate^he 
built him a small kennel upon the grave, 
^hich was replenished once a: day with food 
and water. Two years did this miiyor cdt 
fidelity pass in this manner, till death put an 
end to his griefe. , , . , 

The acQp^nt we hi^ve of SaJbinus apd his 
dpg, is another, proof of canine atlaph^en]t« 
- . Atter the i^eQution of Sabinqs, ihe Uom- 
99 geoeral, w^o suffered death for hh^.attj^^h,; 
ya^t tp the family of Geraoupnicu^^ hiSt b^j 
was ejxposed to the pulfliq.upou t))te.pjc«pir! 
]^u^ pit^e Gepsfoni^, a^ «., WPiog i^ff^M 

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who ^buia dai-e 'to lieiir^d '^6 hoSfm^ tfl€ 
Germantexis : rto firteikl had ©oatage to i^ 
proach tlie body ; oiie only rehiakied tme*^ 
his fkithful dog. Fwt^r^ days the aniflud 
continued to vr'atch the body; his patlvetiiB 
bowlings awiakened the sympathy of evfei^ 
heart.' Food was brOitght Mm,-wh<A h* was 
kJndlj^ fencotira^ed'to eat 5 btjt on tak^ <^ 
bread', iristead of Obeying the iftij^tt*e of hMti^ 
ger/hd fdindAj laid it on his'nMister's'itioutlij 
and YfetT^wed his lamentations r ^ay« thtth 
pasfeedi iibt ^d he' for a moment >qdltliife 
body. • ■ ■'■ • 

"rtieliitocly ^«ras at length thrown into ^ 
^Jier, and, thte gener^ns creature still uttwi!'- 
Hhg ttiat'it should jJerish, le^p^d info<thie 
water aft^r iftjand cfes'ptngthe corpsefeetween 
iiii paw^,' viainljf endfeavdured topf€»eWeit 

Austine affirms the following:— ^ A certate 
prieat, having, a loving dog, was killed 
fer liiis' m6riey,aM tT«5wn anttrtig bttifties, 
otiVi^btne other ptivitcpfece: Whfch d»g 
Sb'iridtirncd for Tiis Tsa'id ritiaster, ' «»!%tt"t» 
w^ld'hot'depairt *oih Hihi, but' hb*i>l«^ kt 
£bat the? dead bbdy Was 'fdniWt; Whiai *«(l 
bbd;y .Wils brought befbrefeertftiii -ttrtte-lto^ie 
Ifewfeftjtb whith place averrf jpBojfl^j toSfcil**!, 

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ter'fHth the tt^t<$f^ttMe^3Mi«aiY(ier^ m^Ivm^ 
he had been guitilad» m t^ Mift^) whcws 
terhen tb« s^ftvd dbg tperct^ived^ be barked mn^ 
iid ruta, nt hhn ^rciely^ atxl by. H^tfteentii 
wo^iJid iea?ve foist tt^rkin^', iicA^hngv and futK 
triUg at Jh4Mv afyd «i<m« ^er^ sAiewiYig) m hw 
manlier that, that was Ii^ wiK> ktUedi^maft^ 
efr. Wtiereupon toe*ng 'sufi^eeied, foe iva* ex- 
am^M^, and ibrttm«b ^^on^^d kis^idkdd 
i)<et, ^akid tk^efoiTQ #as ^essecutedv 

M^f IM»(e iii^e«ncif» 'of ti^ friend- 
fliup ol* t^is ^Mj^ac^Ms dbMMtio could b« 
gH^n; hut afs tk^y are to be iTGund » mmrjr 
iftttfttralkfastories, &e. Mr«4»ope1[^s^wkh oti^ 
or -t^^ ifKrtMiced 0f' the 'sagacfity and ' mainhh. 
ing j^owers of o^er 4»timids mA hixAs wiii 

An instance of 1^ ij^n^hmt's adHofaitieiit 
to his master, is thus given: — King Porus. 
ki% bMtte W4«b Alef»Micl«r the Gi^ait^ being 
t^er^ ¥KWittdted, fell 4tom the bM^ «f 
kitfetephatit l^eAfcicedoiiiMi sdldilirs^iMipM 
pm^tighm 9€a4, f)u^ed fot^ttard, in ot^dA 
to-4is|9<yil Mm of h46 l^h ^dtbti^g and ai> 

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ihg overihe body; of its HMtet«r, boldly repeU 
Jed every one who dared (to appfoiK^h, add 
jvrhile the eaemy stood at bay, took the Meedf 
log Porus up with hia trunk, and placed hira 
jsgain on his back. The troops of Foras 
came up by this time to his relief, and the 
iiing was saved ; but the ekpb^nt dibd odTjdM) 
wounds which it had received in tJhe heroie 
4efence of its master^ 

. Of these and other sediments, such as 
pridet and even a sense of glory, the elephant 
exhibits proofs e<||iaUy surprisi^i^ puid imliibi* 

» Ludolph relates that,elephaiits were of old 
employ ea in India, in the launching of ships^ 
and, that one being directed to force a. very 
large vessel into the water, the work proved 
superior to its stirength ; his master^ WUJ) sar- 
castic tone, bid the keeper take a^ay tJbe lasy 
beast, and bring another; the poor animal 
instantly repeated his efforts^ fractured his 
Scully and died on the spot. 

^ As to the natural affection of bruff3s» say* 
ain ingenious waiter, ^^ the more. I r^bqt on 
it, the more I am astonished, at its efl^cjbSii 
^or is the violence of this affection m^ofoa; 
wondediil than the i^or^ness of its dura|^%; 
Thus eve^y hen in, her turn is the yiraigo ^ 

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wriflitttes the pft^sk)tis,^«[«neHeaM the i'ttvenrttofi 
«Mkl'«htu^»«ti8 «lie'«ag»ttit^ ^'(Eh& ^btiltA cr^o- 
4tisn. Tk«B a Iven, J4i«t biieotli^, a' moti«iis Is 
iio Idn^r ^Akt iplactd ih4ixi «he«»dd t^ b^ bii(t 

kigi, and clocking' note,' nke ru»<^ ^tout'lHte 
«tiefxiK^9ied, DiuiAti will tfeMt^'th^tntfelves 
iti tbfe way of the greatest dttnge* ki «i«4et to 
^U'Sertit-troin'tbeif piiogeny. ThwsApartridgfe 
wiU<CUttobte &kMtgl>ei«Mtett t^^yi^n^sin o^i^^^ 
td dtPdW' AWajr tile dogss &««n "tile ii«]ple»s 

<l««^'.'' ■ ...•••■. 

•»-Itt stkd' thSe «f'nldiftdn*ioft, the nmiit 
<^<9ble %i4<dk wiH >i»«c^lt<«l)« >ni<^ i«p«km«Mt. 

Ait *li*'bitnndiwi6ij lof * villag* ane^^up ito^MOrft 
«tfr tbfe ' l^gbt ©f ■ * 'bAWk, wphkh ^ley mlk ^pUft- 
%Ue till it lettreB that Jdistt-ict* A Vel*y exadt 
^b9ei?Ver has often *ematked ^ttt, A "pair of 
i»mir tt*s«Mng in thfe Mok»f G<ilWA*t6»'w*ukl 
Wiflfer n<> viihare o^ ea^ to fest n^Lftfc^ 
>*«*iei^,' ^t troMid 4tlfive tb^irt fi«o«i'll»fe>bitt 
#M<'feriii«B4rtg i'ufyi ewett tfie't4w6 'tlwi«fe:it 
tlie^ 9*ite«n ot" breedtngi wof«iWH(*art'otait<V6«i 
a4tt(»ng ^e de^ «f><fti« ret^ «d di^ie ^ ttW^ 

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^ear the ne^t of a bird th»t h^ jFoua^i^abe 
2wiU not be induced to bdtrav thenibj^ a»iiv- 
iftdvertan^^ fondness^ bUtwilL Wait aboat, at « 
distaqoe with meat in her nioutb iot an hour 
.tpg^her; Tl» fly^catdier builda every ywr 
4n tlie vtn^ that ffrow on the wallp of mj 
^houie* A pair of thane little birdi$ had ooe- 
.yem iimdv^rtantly placed their n^t on a4mb* 
ed bougb, p^rliaps in a ahady time^ not b^ing 
aw^rerof tne. inconv.enienee that foHqwcd; 
but ^ hot jsimtny seaaon coming on bel^re^bet 
.brpod w^ balf-^iledged^ the reflection ^f the 
widl becans^ insupportable^ and musttinQph- 
i^ly. have depteoyed the tende? youRg»'ba4 
not affection so^jgi^Qd an expedient, .and' 
prompted the parent birds to hover ovjBrth^t 
nei&t all Uie hettei^ hoars^ while ^th wings 
expanded and mouth, gaping for breath. i^ey the heai; from their s|ifieriiig' 
x>ffspring. A faj-tfaer . instance I ^ctetaair^ 
of notable sagacity in a willow^wren^ that 
had built, in a bank in my fields;. This bifd^'* 
a.liiiend and myself had :ob9erved as she 4iati 
in her n^; but were pariieidarly-oarefuhnotr 
:to disturb iter, (ho' we knew she saw m^ and - 
eyed ua with some degree of jealaiis|r.> Smne^i 
days 4fter» .as Wie passed that wa^\^JWfevietBU 
desirous of rem^iking how this brood went 

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di^iMb^nb ' n^tdkitd btsr fouhd^ til! 1 Kap^^ 
fM»e^ tp take a lai^ btmdle^of long 'green 
BioM tas it iwere ^trelesftly thrown orer the 
neat, in ordeF to dodge the eye of any imper-' 
tinent intruder/' 

i^.Ai ii?dnderftil spiritof aociality in the brute 
oreatiofii I independent of sexual attachment^: 
faa& t)6eii frequently remarked. Many horses ' 
though quiet with company, will' not stay' 
(9ie tninute in a field by themselves: the 
^GHigest ' fences cannot restrain them; A 
horse has* baen known to leap out at a stable 
wwdow out of which dang was thrown, after 
company; and yet in other respects is re-' 
m&rkably quiiet Oxen* and Cows will not 
fatten bye diemselves ; but - will^ M^glect the 
finest pasture that is nbt recommended by - 
society. It would be neckUess to instance in 
she^, tbat constantly ilock together. But' 
this pr'apeRsityseenYS not to be confined to 
aiiiraals^)0f tlie same species. - ,^ 

' In the work last quoted, we are told of a 
doe stQl alive, that was brought up frimi a* 
little ikwn with a dairy of cows ; it acconi- 
panwfr th^n to the field, and returns again' 
t& the yard. The 'dogs of the house tdke> 
11Q notice €ff this deer, being used 'to hetfi 
\mA if stHoige dog9 omie by» a cbaseeiistiei^ 

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assailants quite out of the piaadiitOi 

Ey^n ^c»t,diftpai*t>( ot* kij^ tttdl ww-cbes 
no*a}w4yjsr|wreimrit«o(imFadk^a«o^ Hittt«»( 

aMsi ioitence is gii^n i«tlila'WOBk*.ft»rA,vfify 
inteHig^nt and obseiivaiYit jpei^an ^»iiratl im 
tilat m a foimer piart af kb Hle^ kfcepw^ b«t 
ojte lioiesfti he h^pi^fietJ nba odr!a feime tti 
hAPt»Q. Init ane hi^sf^ alt t^ ^sfMne tin»^lMd 
b^ one «oJ*^Ty hen^ Tb^ae fcwo ifuoon^m- 
Qim asAim^% afiienti roM>i' cf tbi^ir time tn^ 
tMir m aibntily/Qtirlkaf^vi^hgrmitoouiteaiNiit; 
b«H ttl»toiariwGS;3v«r6'tobie aatoi Bji^dfgMar 
fw jip{»rMiifr i'eg9ie!Q^)[ieg0nt totals 
tnni^n .fthcbe twoi^«^tl^efil£alcl4 • itt^idtMli^ 
"Blei ib#lj wcMld^ I atoproftofe. tkei t^ifdeifipfiA 
with notes of compl^smiej!^^ rubtn%^ ii^matf 
^'Mly ajQ^wnst his ^ga; wh^ il^ Iwiiie 
n^ofliidiopk dowFo^^hiimtiafi^ 
wMbb tJi^ greoteffibcantiispKandi efimma^HSctita^ 
kilr he ahoeld' amib}^ im Itiarcmaimiam 
ofimpanijaK By^ mistaial gbod bflMeaeiMli 
flieffliiedb tb Mnsolfr^ th^ vacui. 1»im» ti^tln 

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Jowihg sefitxjnent in the mouth ofAdant^ 
ieems to be somewhat mistiaken. 

Much^less can bird wHh boast, mt fish with fow]^ 
So well converse, aor with the oi^ the ape. 

In the gentleman's magazine for March 
1788, we have the following anecdotes of a 
Raven, communicated by i3u correspondent 
who does not sign his name, but who sajs it 
is at the service of the doubtful. The raven 
alluded to lives or did live three years since, 
at the Red Lion at Hungerford; his name, 
I think, is Rafe, You must know then, that 
coming into that inn, my chaise run over or 
bruised the leg of my Newfoundland dog; 
and while we were examning the injqry dpre 
to the dog's foot, Rafe was evidently a con-%. 
cerned^spectator; for the minute the dog was 
tied up under the manger with my horse, 
Rafe pot only visited but fetched him bopes, 
and attended upon him with particular and 
repeated marks of kindness. The bird's no- 
tice of thedog was so marked,that I observed 
it to the hostler, for I had not heard a word 
before of the history of this benevolent crea- 
ture. John then told me, that he had be«i 
jbred from his pin-feathers in iutimacy with a 


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dog; thit tl^ neigUKMiribodtid: fand aften bera 
witnesses oftlMitiinimecdbffeGBcts of kindiieM 
they had conferred upon each other. Bafe^s 
poor dog, after ti while, iffifortmiatelj broke 
his leg; Bnd during the long time he was con- 
fined, -Ba& waited uppn him K^onstantly, car- 
ried him his , proTisions daily^ and never 
scarce left him aloiie ! One night by accf*- 
dent the hostler liad shut 4;he «table door, and 
Rafe was •deprieved of the company of his 
friend the whole night ; but the hostler found 
in the morning the bottom of the door sq 
pedced away tliat, had it not been opene^C 
Xlafe would in another hour have made his 
entrance port. I then enquired of my land- 
lady (a sensible woman,) and heard what I 
have related confirmed by her, with several 
other singular traits of the kindnesses this 
Ibird shows to all dogs in general, but parti- 
cularly to maimed or wounded ones. 1 hope 
and believe^ how-ever, the bird is still livings 
and the traveller will find I have notover-ratr 
•ed tliis wonderful bird's merit. 

To these instances of attachment between 
incongruous anima1s,from a spirit of sociality 
Or the feelings of sympathy, may be added 
the following instance of fondness from a dit 
ferent motive, recounted by JMr. White, in 
the work already so frequently quoted, ^ij 

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friend had a little helpless leveret biorightti) 
iiiw, which the sei^knts fed with inilfe to a 
spoon ; and about the same time hfe cat kifc- 
tiet^ed, an Hi the younsg were dbpatcbed and 
buried. The hare was soon* k)st, and sup«- 
posed to be gone the way of most fi)ndllngs, 
or to be kiHed by some dojj or cat. However, 
In about arfbrtnight^a^tlie master was sitting 
m hh garden in the dusk oi* the evening, he 
Ql>#erred his cat, with tail erects t?ri[rtting^ 
waixb htm, and eailitig with> little short in»- 
ward itotes: o£ ccTn^lacrirey, »Bch a» they 
ttse towQKPds their kitJtefn^, and something 
ffambqling aftier^ which proved t©i be the 
leveret which the cat had*supported withher 
miiHc,. and cx^nttnuedi t& support with great 
affec^on. Tbisi was a granivorons- animal 
miftured. by a carnivorous and predaceous 

- Why s& orael and^ sanguinary a beftst as a 
eat, of the ferocious genus^ of jFe/w, the mur^ 
wmiea^as'Liimdsus calls it, ahcHild be affect^ 
ed.with any tenderness towards an animai 
whichas its natural prey, is not so easy to 
deCernnnei Theis strange affection probably 
W» occasioned by that desiderium^ thoso 
tender maternal jteelingfty .which the loss of 
her kittens had awakened in hetr breast; and 
l^tW'^inplaoeo^ and ease she derived to 

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'herself from the procuring her teats to he 
drawn, which were too much distended with 
milk, till from the habit she became as much 
delighted with this foundling as if it had been 
her real offspring. 

This incident is no bad solution of th it 
strange circumstance which grave historians 
as well as the poets assert, of exposed chil- 
dren being sometimes nurtured by female 
wild beasts that probably had lost their young. 
For it is not one whit more marvellous that 
Romtdus and JRanus^ in their , ini^nt state, 
should be nursed by a she wolf, than that a 
poor little sucking leveret should be fostered 
by a bloody grimalkin. 

But besides the different qualities enumer- 
ated, besides reflection and sagacity often in 
an astonishing degree, and besides the senti- 
ments and actions prompted by soci^ or 
natural attachments, certain brutes seem on 
many occasions inspired with a superior &- 
culty, a kind of presentiment or second sight 
as it were, with regard to events and designs 
altogether unforeseen by the rstional beings 
wliom they concern. Of the faculty alluded 
to, various instances will probably consist 
with the knowledge or the recbllection of 
most of our readers: we shall therefore only 
recite tlie following on account of its unques- 

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Uonable authenticity. At the* seat of the 
tat e earl of Lichfield, three miles^from fflen- 
Keira, there is a portrait in the^dintng-^room) 
of Sir Henry Lee^ by Johnston, irith that of 
a. inastiffrdog which saved his^^life. 

It seems, a servant had formed the demgot 
<^ a:ssasdinating his in aster Mid robbing the 
hofuse; but the nigirt he had fixed on, the 
dog. which > had never beea much noticed by 
Sir Heeory^ for the first time followed him up 
stairs^ got imdear his bed, and could not be^ 
got fitxm thence by either master or mau : 
in the dead ofniglk, the same servant eoter** 
ed the room to execute his horrid design; 
but was instantly seized by the dog^and .being 
ffiBeox^ed^ confessed his intentional Thereafe 
tcso.qtiaint lines in ooe corner oftbe picture, 
wkmk conclude thus: 

But lii^ my de§i whec^ef I made no store^ . 
I find moi-c love than those I trusted more. 

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Upon what h3rpothesis can we account for 
a degree of foresight and penetration such as 
this? Or will it be suggested, as a solution 
of the difficulty, that a dog may possibly bes- 
come capable ip a measure of undei standing 
human aiscourse, and of reasoning accord- 
ingly; and that, in the present instance, the 
villain had either uttered his design in solilo- 
quy, or imparted it to an accomplice, in the 
hearing of the animal ? 

It has been disputed, (says the editor of 
the Encyclopedia Brittanica ) whether the 
brutes have any language whereby they can 
express |;heir minds to each other; or whe- 
ther all the noise they make consists only of 
cries inarticulate, and unintelligible evqn to 
themselves. We are, however,^too little ac^ 
quainted with the intellectual faculties of 
these creatures to be able to determine thk 
point. Certain it is, that their passions, when 
excited, are generally productive of some pe- 
culiar cry ; but whether this be designed as 
an expression of the passion to others, or on- 
ly a mechanical motion of the muscles of the 
larynx occasioned by the passion, is v^hatwe^ 
have no means of knowing. We may, ind^e^* 
from analogy, conclude, with great reason,? 
that some of the cries of beasts are really exr. 
pressions of their sentiments; but whptli^t 

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79 1 

one be^st is capable of forming a design, and ^ 

communicating that design by any kind of 
language to others, is what we submit to the 
iudgment of the reader, after giving the foK 
lowing instance, which among others is^ 
brought as a proof of it by father Bougeant. 
A sparrow finding a nest that a mart iij had, 
just built, standing very conveniently for him, 
possessed himself of it. The martm, seeing 
the usurper in her bouse, called for help to 
expel him. A thousand martins came full 
speed, and attacT^ed the sparrow; but the 
latter being covered on every side, and pre- 
senting only his large beak at the entrance of 
the nest, was iuvulnerable,and made the bold- 
est of theni who durst approach him repent 
of their temerity. After a quarter of an hovir\s 
combat, all the martins disappeared. The 
sparrow ^^thought he had got the better, and 
the spectators judged that the martins had 
abandoned their undertaking. Not in the 
least. Immediately they returned to the 
charge; and each of them having procured a 
little of that tempered earth with which they 
mftke their nests, they all at once fell upon 
tli^ sparrow, and inclosed him in the nest to, 
p^rii^ there, though they could not drive 
him hence. Can it be imagined that the 
itta^tltos c?ould have been able to hatch and 

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conceit, the design of tliejfn, altogether, with- 
out speaking to each other, or. without sotne 
medium ot communication equivalent to 

As beasts have understanding, so they 
Diust have a langua«:e,or method of communi- 
cating their knowledge, advice, and assist- 
ance to each other. If they, could not under- 
stand or be understood, by each other, they 
could neither give nor receive any comfort, 
assistance, or help from society ; and with- 
out such a communication, it would be abso-^ 
Ititely impossible for such a society to subsist. 
In a word, no more communication, no more 
society. It is impossible that the turtle^ that 
is fond of his mate^ should be at a loss for 
proper expressions to discover the tenderness, 
the jealously, the anger, the feiars, he enter- 
tains for her; in the several incidents of life, 
that must arise betwixt the most loving couple 
in the course of cohabitation. He must scold . 
her when she play&the coquet; he must bully 
the sparks that make attempts upon her vir- 
tue ; he must be able to understand when 
she calls to him, &c. Enter into a wc^bd, 
where there are a parcel of jays, the first that 
sees you, gives the alarm to the whole com- 
pany. Let a cat shew herself in a garden, 
the very first sparrow or swdlow, that per- 

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ceives her, warns all his companions. Many 
thousands examples might be produced to' 
prove that brutes have a power of expressing 
their ideas, and sentiments to each other. 

The following retaliation is a convincing 
proof of the powers of communicating ideas, 
or language, between the Storks, as well as 
the power of memory with which they are 

A wild stork was brought by a farmer la 
the neighbourhood of Hamburgh, into his 
poultry-yard, to be the companion of a tame 
one, which he had long kept there ; but the 
tame stork disliking a rival, tell upon the poor 
stranger, and beat hiih so unmercifully, that 
he was compelled to take wing, and with 
some difficulty escaped. About four months 
afterwards, ho weve^r, he returned to the poul- 
try-yard, recovered of his wounds, and attend- 
ed by three other storks, which no sooner 
alighted, than they altogether fell upon the 
tame stork, and killed him. 
. The poet says,— 

The stork's the emhlem of true piety : 
Because when age has seized^ and made his data 
Unfit for fiight, the grateful young one takes ' 
His mother on his back» provides her food i 
Repaying thus her tender care of him 
£re he was fit to fly, by bearing her. 

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Sblomim^ aJsov takes notice ^f tire atork) 
for he says, Go to tbedesert,my sobv observe 
|iie young stork in the wilderness; let hira 
spe'aktothy heart; hebearethon hig wings 
his aged sire; he lodgeth him with safety, 
and supplietlv him with food; 

Ih i\m London newspapers for Octobet 
ISOS^ there was the following announcnraeut 
*^ A few days ago died, in Half-Moon-Streety 
Ficeadilly, the celebrated parrot ot: Colonel 
Of Kelly. , Thift singular bird sang a numbef 
efl songs in. perfect timeand tune. She oould 
express her wants. a^tieulately, and* gi ire bcv 
cnrders in a. manner n^tdy approaching l93 
ndionaEty*. Hear a^ twas not known y it: was 
bovf^vjec moretthaot thirty yearsK,forpreiriou»» 
ly to that pariod^ Mn O^ Eelly bought hei 
at BristcJ ibr a hundred guineas* The ool^ 
Qxiel was repeatedly ofiered five hundred 
gttin^is anyear for the bird, by persons who 
wished to make a public eKhibition of her; 
but this, out of tenderness to the £am>t»^ite^ 
he constantly refused." She oou)d(not^ only 
repeat a great number of sentences, but ans- 
wejr questions put to her.. When singing she ' 
beat time with ail the appearance of science; 
and so accurate was herjutlgment that, if by 
cl^^ce she.iii}sto^^ a, no^e^ she would revert 

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sect herseif»4ind ^ill bcatitig regular tim^ 
go through ihe wbcde withiira4iderfql'ti|jK;(ii- 

Mr. liodoe^ m his ^^ Eswf wi the Hmimti 
•tFnderaitanding," ghres aii aeeoimt of.apurrot 
which would siwwer airy question so ^correc^*- 
ly^. that^ io all appeararicei she w«&ted Mtfle 
mtk^t radonahty idTwhicih Ihe humfm^peciM 
CDske so mcich boast. 

FSnmj^ ako^ gives ^e^smttimi^ hk autb- 
i$rity of the twoisGsvs of the emperor Clau^liiis 
hBEvmg ^ven some Mghtihgales so classical 
an ^edbication, that theiy could speak both 
<iisek aiid I^atm ifltiently^ and every day iii^ 
<vent some new exptiessions of .their own, 

.Lord Komes aeems t6 dissent from the 
as of timse above qaoted^ for, hi hia 

Sketches of the History rf Man/* <sa^'a» 
-^^ Whedier man be provided by mature with 
^ &cuhj to distinglfthsh hmooefM; ad itnab firotti 
.what are noxious, iseems not a diear jstoitti: 
wsfchfafwculty may be thought unnecessary 
.to man, being ^^«lpplied by re^oii and ex« 
Berienoew But as treason and 'e'xperieDce 
-nave litde infliBence on brute aniitii^t 
tihey undoubteddy possess that faculty/ A 
beast of prey would be ill fitted for tts^talion^ 
ijf nature did not. teach it What erealures to 
attack, and what to avoid. A rabbit is the 


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prey of the ferret Present ft^ rftbblt,r 
dead, to a young ferret that had never deea 
a rabbit; it throws itself upon the body, ai^ 
bites it with fury. A hound has the ^in^ 
faculty with rcsspect to a hare ; and most dogs 
have it. Unless directed by nature, inno- 
cent animals would not know their art erajf^ 
till they were in its clutches. A hare flies 
with precipitation from the first dog it- ever 
saw; and a chicken, upon the first sight o^m 
kite, cowers under its dam.. Social animals, 
without scruple, connect with their own kkid^ 
Wnd as readily avoid others. Birds, are not 
;afraid of quadrupeds ; not even of a cat, till 
^hey are taught by experienfce that^ a eat is 
'their enemy. They appear to. be as Itt&le 
"afraid of a man naturall y ; and upon th$st\ ac- 
count ;are far from being shy when left vmm4^ 
lested. In the uninhabited island of ¥isia 
Grande, one of the Hiilippines, Kempfcir 
'says, that birds may be taken with. the hand. 
'Hawks, in some of the South Sea.Islandi, 
are equally tame. At Port Egmont,*iii-lfcB 
Falkland Islands, geese, for from being-shy, 
may be knocked down with a stick, .lite 
birds that inhabit certain rocks hangingf<0V6r 
the sea, in the island of Annabon, take^iod 
rf'ieadily out of a man's hand.. In:.^Lnrii|a 
Felix, foxes and ap^show no fear of man j 

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alMik>ii of huAtiog. Intbeuninhiibited.Jblanrl 
Bmtin^9 accent to.K^mskatkay foxes are si 
Iktle shy ihsitlim^ scai^ca g^o^t of a man's 
way. " 

Whtm we Iwgin- to scputiaiae this^part of 
fais lordship's pireliminfaF;^ discouFserWe are 
wi»pt mamazdpientvthat such> a palpable er- 
ror Wuxild ha^^ escaped thi^profmiiK;! philor 
90|]dTar: for h<)w is it possible to reconciJQ 
^ Rea^Km and experieneet (saArshe^Y have lit* 
tie ifiafluenc^ on brute animajs;" When, in 
jtbe kudt®* part of the same sufa^ct,,he proves, 
frofn various histories, that it is reason and 
and ex^mnce aJcHie which make the brute 
animdisf afi^dof man> ajfd of one anotheiv 
f^ Birds, (he adds^^ a^re not afraid of quadra^ 
peds ; not even ot sd catt till they are taug;ht 
by easpgrietftce that a eat i£» their en^mcy/' 

1^ a late conversation^ with a North eousr 
. idry. farmer, wbo^ had a very la^ge dog of the 
wolf kind; we were told that t^his dog was the 
most peaceable, tractable, and docile animal 
-tbflit ever Hyed: and, Althou^ hejiad bee^ 
4ore«^bt npr m a ^e»t mannert with a flock 
^ sheep, and had been .daily in their conv- 
f9nj &a somct yearly bO' v^e fa^vm kaowiiii; 

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hini to hurt one of them, tier the leitet indiim^ 
tibn tending that way, ere one' day that a lamb 
Jiad died and was thrown to the dog; From 
that day, and always after, no sheep durst 
come within his reach but at the expense (rf 
their lives. Before his master Was aware of 
his rapacious propensity for flesh, he had des- 
troyed upwards of twenty fine sheep and 
lambs. The loss was great and provoking; 
as he had to refoundall the damage done by 
the dog to the neighbours, which was. also 

J^reat. Every means being tried to prevent 
lim from this destructive practice, but ia 
vain ; he was with great reluctance killed.^— 
■What does this pro vie? Why, that it is not 
instinct that teaches animals " what to attack 
Bnd what to avoid," hnt experience^ Sec We 
have various testimonies in Buffon, andothers 
to the same purport , ; 

We have already given a few instances of 
the Carnivorous and Graminivorous annuals 
living together in perfect harmony j we shall 
only add a few more. 

A gentleman travelling through Mecklen^r 
burg about thirty years ago, was witness to 
the following curiplis circumstance in the 

I)bst-house At Stargard. After dinner, dip 
andlord placed on the floor a large dish of 

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soup, and i^are a \ond wliistle. Immef^iately 
there came into (he room a mastiff, a fine 
Angora cat, a!i old raven, and a remarkably 
iarge rat with a bell about its neck. Theae 
four animals went to the dish, and without 
disturbuig each other, fed together; after 
which the dog, cat, and rat, lay before the fire, 
while the raven hopped about the room. 

In Borlase's Natural history of Cornwall, 
we have an accounu of a hare which Wiis so 
domesticated, as to feed from tiie hand, lay 
imder a chair in a common sitting room, and 
appeared in every other respect as easy and 
comfortable in its situation as a lap-dog. It 
now and then went out into the garden, but 
after regaling itself with the fresh air, always 
Returned to the house as its proper habitation. 
Its usual companions were a greyhound and 
spaniel, with which it spent its evenings, the 
whole three sporting and sleeping together 
on the same hearth. What makes this cii:- 
cumstance more remarkable is, that the grey- 
hound and spaniel were both so forid of harej- 
hunting that, they used often to go out cours- 
ing together, without any person accompany- 
ing them. 

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;' Most of our readei^, we pi^Bume, arerao- 
'iduainted with the history of Cowper^s Hares, 
^(which was first inserted in the gentleinatl*s 
magazine,) but for those who are not, we 
^hall offer no apblogy for transcribing it here. 
'He begins thus — In the ^ear 1774, being 
ettiuch indisposed both in mind and body,in- 
cap^le of diverting myself either with com- 
pany or books, and yet in a condition th^t 
-maoe some diversion necessary, I was ^lad 
»of any thing that would engage my attention 
without fatiguing it. The children ofaneigb- 
Jbour of mine had a leveret given them for a 
plaything; it was at that time alK>ut three 
months old. Understanding better how to 
tease the poor creature than to feed it, and 
<spon becoming weary of their charge, they 
•readily consented that their father, who saw 
'it pining and growing leaner every day^oulU 
offer it to my acceptance. I was williiOig 
enough to take the prisoner under niy pro^ 
tection, perceiving that, in the managemeiit 
of such an animal, and in the attempt £b 
tame it, >I should find just that sort or enif 
ployment which my case required. It wits 
soon known among the neighbours that»I wit^ 
pleased with the present; and the coasch 
quence was, that in a shor time I had as manv 
leverets offered to me, as would have stbckea 

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-n paddock. I undertook the -care of tibree, 
which it is necesi^ry that Lshould here dis- 
tinguish by the names I gave them— Puss> 
Tiney, and Bess. Notwithstanding the two 
Temine appelatives, I must inform you, that 
^tliey weAeall males. Immediately commenc- 
ing carpenter,! built them houses to sleep in; 
each Iiad a separate apartment, so contrived^ 
thai their ordure would pass through the bot- 
tom of it 'y an earthen pan placed under eachj 
fecfeived whatsoever fell ; which being duly 
emptied and washed, they were thus kept 
perfect ly sweet and clean. , In the day-tim^ 
they had the range of a hall, and at night rer 
tired each to his own bed, never intruding 
^to that of another. _ 

Puss grew presently familiar, and would 
leap into my lap, raise himself upon his hin- 
der feet, and bite the hair from my temples. 
Me would suffer me to take him up, and tp 
cJsirry him about in my arms, and has moie 
thkn once fallen fast asleep on my knee* He 
was ill three days,during which time I nursed 
him, kept him apart from hi^ fellpws, that 
t^ey might not molest him, (for, lik^ many 
oiher wild animals, they persecute one of 
their own species that issick,):and,by conp 
stant care, and trying him with a^ v^yiety of 
lierbs, restored him to perfect health. Ki> 

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creature pcmld be more ^teftil tliali^fp^ 
tient after his recovery; a sentiment •which 
he most significantly expressed by licking my 
hand, fii:3t the back of it^ then thepaioi, then 
evety finger separately, then between ^all the 
Angers, as if anxious to leave no part of k 
iinsaluted; a ceremony which he neveripMk 
formed but once again on a similar occafiioQ, 
-Findingihim extr^xiely tractable, Imade it 
my custom to carry him always after breds^ 
fast into the garden, where he? hid himself 
generally under the leaves of acuoumbervioe, 
sleeping or chewing the cud till evening: in 
the leaves also of that vine he'&und a/&v^ 
<ourite repast. I had not long! habttuatedhtm 
to this taste of liberty, before>he be^ui toibe 
impatient' for the return of the time /when he 
might enjoy it. He would invite me' to the 
garden bv ^rtimn^ing upon my Joiee, andiiy 
a look of su^h expression, as it "Was not.pos^ 
sible to misinterpret. If this rhetorio did 
Dot immediately succeed, he would take the 
skirt of my coat betweem his teeth, and fMJl 
at it with all his force. ThusF^ss might be 
said ta be perfectly tamed, the shyness otf^^ 
nature was done away, 4n^ it was /vtsiUe 
by many symptons, which fl ihave fW^t 
room to enumerate, that he was hatpBibrftiii 
humaii society, thai;! when ^bhat up>Wi<^\his 

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J. .NotJipTiije)?; upon bim thekindeiptftreat- 

inent h^d OQttbe U^t j^fTeqt. .!He top w^ 

0iQk, jaoiLl ii^liis »jki:n«3»bad w ^ual share,4?jf 

attention; but if, after his recovery^J took, 

Mie liberty . to . atroj^e hirxij he would ^runt^ 

'^nfcn^i.e. with/ his forefeet, ,spring forward, an4 

liitie. ^:He was however very ^ntertaiaing ip 

hh mayi even bis surliness was matter of 

m^Ythi aod inhis.pWyjheipr^s^rv^d «uch afn 

air-of^tavity, ^md performed bi3 feats with 

such] a solemnity iof; njanner, th»ti in bim top 

I'had aaagi^eablecompstnion* 

\ 1 iBi^s^; who .died soon iifter lie wa^ full grown 

•ndiwhosedeath was occasioned by hici being 

. turoed iato his box, which had been washed, 

lyhileJt .was ;y»et damp, was a hare of great 

humour. and drollery. Puss was tamed by 

^ gentle usage; jTmey was not to be tamed at 

«il;i:aadtBess,had a courage and confidence 

that} made him ■, tam e fi o m th e begi t) n\ ng. < I 

aimaya admitted them into the parlour after 

i attpper,twben, the carpet affording their feet 

' a nr^ ihokl, they would frisk, and bound, and 

.|»l«rf ill I thousand gambols, in which Bess,. 

otxeingiireEiarkably strong and fearless, was 

, ^always iSiiperior. to the rest, and proved him- 

0dif£he Vcastris lof the party. One evening 

^tb€}ff)Ut'^Bg in the roomi had the hardijiiess 

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to pat Bess upon the <;beekn«n'm<liM|^^ 
which he resented by drumn^ing upon neit 
back with such violence, that the cat wa^hig^ 

Ey to escape from undet his paws, and bid^ 
erself. >, 

; I describe these animals as having each 4 
character ofhis own. Such they were in iac4 
and their couatenances were so expressive of 
that character, tliat, when I looked oijly.p^ 
the face of either, I immedi^ely knew which 
it was. It is said that a shepherd, hptwe^ec. 
numerous his flock, soon becomes so familiiurj 
with their features,as know them all; and yet to. 
-a common observer, the difference is hardly 
perceptible. I doubt not that the same dis-r 
crimination in the case of countetiancies would 
be discoverable in hares, and am persuaded' 
that among a thousand of them no two an^d 
oe found exactly similar ; a cirqumstance lit^ 
tie suspected by those who have not had op-, 
portunity to observe it. These creatures hav0 
a singular sagacity in discovering the n^tnui^^. 
est alteration that is made in the place to" 
which they are accustomed, and instantly aip^ ^ 
ply their nose to the examination of a neW? 
object. A small hole being burnt in the car- 
pet, it was mended with a patch, and that 
patch in a moment underwent the strictest 
scrutiny. They seem, too, to be very wiuch 

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f^'rfected hy'the gtnell in the. choice ^f thc^^r 
,tavourites : to some persouis, though thejr 
saw (them daily, they cohW nevjer be recpn- 
;<^il€d, and would even scream .when they afc- 
itempted to touch them; but a miliar coming 
-in engaged their affections at once; his pow- 
deVed coat had charms that were irressisiible. 
Jt is no.wonderthat my intimate acquaintances 
withthe^se specimens of the kind, has tau^l^t 
me to hold the sportsman's amusement in 
abhorrence: he little knows what amiable 
dfeatures he persecutes, of wiiat gratitude 
they are capable, how cheerful they are iii 
*their spirits, what enjoyment they have uf 
life, and that, impressed as they seem with a 
jieculiar dread or man, it is only because man 
gives them peculiar cause for it, 
' Bess, I have said, died young; Tiney liv6d 
to be nine years old, and died at List,! have 
reason to think, of some hurt in his loins hy 
a'fall: Puss is still living, and has just com- 
pleted his tenth year, discoveringno signs of 
decay, nor even of age, except that he m 
'^grown more discreet, and Jess frolicsome than 
j|ie was. Lcannot conclude without observ- 
ing,' that I have lately introduced a dog to his 
acquaintance : a spaniel tliatijiad never seen 
jA hare, to a hare tluitliad never Aeenia<spa a- 
ieL I did it with great taution^ but tliere 



was no real need of it Puss discovered no 
token of fear, nor Marquis the least symptom 
of hostility. There is, therefore, it shoutd 
seem, no natural antipathy between dog and 
hare, but the pursuit of the one occasions thfe 
flight of the other, and the dog pursues be- 
cause he is trained to it ; they eat bread at 
the same time out 6f the same hand, and are 
in all respects sociable and friendly. 
May 28, 1784. 

Tliat birds also, are not wholly guided by 
instinct, (as Lord Kames says,) but by reason^ 
reflection, and experience, will appear from 
the following account of the migration of the 

The mystery which attends the retreat 6f 
the swallows from our northern climes dur- 
. ing winter, is one which promises little hope 
of ever being solved. To whatever clime or 
part of the world they proceed, their flight 
IS at an elevation far beyond the reach of 
human optics. With the first ray of the mor- 
ning they depart so directly upwards, as to 
elude all research; and with the first dawn 
of day they return, but whence no man caii 
tell; they drop as from the clouds, and take 
4lip their abode in their former haunts, as if 
they bad just left them an hour befoite. ,; : ' 

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The. pfi^^parajtion for theif aotiual flight is 
marked by some interesting circumstances^ 
After the swallows have got their second 
br(K>d5 which is generally about the Hilddle^ 
of. September, they devote the whole of the^ 
r^inaining time to training the young for theirr 
ultimate flight* The regularity and order 
yiith which this is dones is extraordinaiy^ 
After the business pf the food gathering it 
over, they assemble in multitudes from all 
quarters in one general convehtion, on the 
i^f of some buildings or on some large tree*. 
While the assembly are seated together,. one 
wha seems com mander^nrchief keeps aloft 
on the wing^ flying rouKid.and round; at last 
darting, upwards with great swiftness with a 
loud, ^harp, and. repeated calj, he seems as if 
he gave the word of command; instantly the 
whole flock are on the wing, risitig upwards 
in the most beautiful spiral track, till the j 
attain regions beyond the reach of human 
view. They remain in the upper regions of 
the j^jbmosphere from a quarter to half-an-hour, 
when they all return by scores and dozens, 
to the place from which they took their flight, 
thisfnanoeuvre they will repeat twice or three 
times in the evening, when the weather is 
fil^r^, and a^ler ten or twelve daVs practicing, 
they take their final departure ior the season. 

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We arte rflstf ibf&Httibd by €^^ 
fcis "^ Fngli»h Herbd Physfekn/' that these 
l^rdrfateie*eelteat dcttliste; '"^ For, (says be,) 
ffjrdto^^u*^ out the ^ye» of younjf swallows 
#heh' th^y a¥e in th& nmu the old ones wffi 
ftteoter tk^ii^eyes again with this beorK (€e^ 
Kmdifie) Thm I lun confident,! for I haive 
tried i¥, fat if we mw the very appfe of tliek 
^yerwitk a needle^ s^he wilt r^ecwrer tkem ih 

The hif^ory df the wise elephant;. tJie sa^ 

fsiciou^slhd iVoiMOFfulbe^er }the industarious 
ee; the inde^tgabl^ ant; the docitef and 
friendly dog ; the tta6table imdwarlil^ hon^ 
Ihe" eurming fb^; and the genei'ous lii^iy wMi 
|hany others, thai deserve 0&4? nKKitpartic»» 
tar attention. fie)pe^ aaysr— 

' Oof^ from the crealui^et th^ instructions lake : 
Learn from the bird^ what food the thickets yield : 
t^earn from the beastiT the phpic 6f the fiddf ; 
' 1 fay ekt of bufi^ybg fi^m the tee reoeite ; 

L^arnof Uie mole to plough, the urcntei to weare jr 
l.earo of the little nautilus to sail, 
*^ Spread the thin oar, and cateh ^e drivfi^gld^ 

f Hehe too all Ibraiir of social mudn fiod^ 

And hence let reason, kite, instruct mankind* 
fi ere subterranean works and cities 86e :• 
'^h^ii' town atrial oil the waviitg trelB.* 
lieam eath sipall people's fonius, poUeiefy 
The ant's repuWic, and the realm of bees ; 
H6# these in common all theit wesdth bestdw^ 
' And anarchy wkhoUl coi^ftiaion haoW;. 

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Ttieir seo'rate cell$ and properties maintaiiu 
if ark wnat unwearied laws preserve eacb staler 

* How^ much man is indebt^ to QiaBy of 
tite beast3, birds^ and fiahes, for yarious disr 
covenes in »rt, science, virtue, policy and 
good governments is well know to tl^ose 
who. study the wisdom of God in the wor^i 
of his creation. From the elephant tp tl^e 
antv inclusive of the nautilusi the beaver, the 
horse, the dog, the bee, with hundreds more* 
I that stand unrivalled by man in their differ- 
. ent works of ingenuity and industry. To 
the NAUTILUS are we indebteil for one of the 
gr^ind«^t and most usei^il inventions since the 
world began, namely the art of sailing and 
managing ships on the ocean. 

Oppiatt Halieut. lib* 1. describes this fish 
in <iip fpllpwing ipfianner:— " They swim on 
thQ surface of the sea» on the back of their 
fhells, which e:?actly resemble the hulk of a 
shi^ ^ey r*aise two f^ot like masts, and ex* 
tend a membrane between, which serves as 
a salt ; tjie other two feet they employ as oars 
at their side* They ^re usually seeu in the 

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From what has beeti observed of brutes by 
some discerning men, they have admitted 
them the power of of discriminating objects, 
and without hesitation, ascribe to them abili- 
ties, in some degrees superior to those of 
men. Many of them give proofs of their 
prescience in various cases, (as we have al- 
ready shown in the instance of SirHenry Lee) 
particularly the weather; and those who 
pay necessary attention to them find they are 
infallible prognosticators. The few following 
lessons may serve as a specimen. 


When the heron or bitem flies low, the 
^ir is gross, and thickening into showers. 

When kine view the sky, stretching up 
their heads, and snuffing the air, moist va- 
pours are engendering: and the cause of 
their doing so is their sensibleness of the 
air's sudden alteration from dry to wet; and 
sudden rain will ensue, though at tliat time 
the sun may shine out. 

The chattering of swallows, and their flying 
low about ponds and lakps, denote rain. 

The frogs much croaking in the ditches 
and pools, &c. in the eveamg, fortells raia 
in a littje time to follow. 

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^ tThe ants* removing their eggs, denotes 
rain; for finding the air changed into much 
moisture, they carry them to a place of drier 

The crows flocking in large flights, holding 
their heads upwards as they fly, and crying 
louder than usual, is a sign of rain; as also 
their stalking by ponds and rivers, and sprink- 
ling themselves. 

The often dropping and diving of water- 
fowls, foreshow that rain is at hand. 
'- The Peacocks crying much, denote rain. 

Cattle leaving off to feed, and hasting to 
shelter under hedges, bushes, trees, out-hous- 
es, &c. show sudden showers of rain are com- 

We shall conclude these signs of rainy 
weather, with the following curious anecdotes. 

A gentleman who travelled much, seeing 
a shepherd by the roadside tending his flocks, 
and other cattle, demanded of him, if it would 
continue as it then was, for the sun shin- 
ed out? The shepherd looking on his cattle, 
told him it would rain ver> much in an hour, 
and extremely wet him, unless he got shelter: 
the gentleman smiled at this, and would not 
believe him ; but as he said, so it proved ; for 
immediately a little cloud arising at south- 
west, came driving on with the wind, and 

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spt^&A iteelf, so that die sky ^wte covfeVed 
'With prodigious darkness; and though the 
^ntleman rode hard to get to a town about 
•five miles from him, the rain before he reacb- 
ed it, poured down so prodigiously, that he 
'was wet to the skin ; and remembering what 
th^ shepherd said, that upon his return find- 
ing him in the same place, he requested he 
would tell him how he came precisely to 
fcnow the change of the weather. The shep- 
herd at first reiused it, bat for haH-a-crown 
(after much import un ity)consented, and when 
the gentleman expected he should express 
himself in astrological terms, he only said, 
sir, do you see yonder pied colt, pointing te 
him? Well, said the gentleman, and what df 
that ? Why, says the shepherd, when be runs 
his head into the hedge, and turns his post^i- 
ors to the weather guage, then it certmnly 
betokens rain, though the weather priomises 
at that time otherwise to those that areignoiv 
norant of the skill in prognosticating^ 

The Indians were in the habit of piofnosfti* 
eating the mildness or severity of the ^isu* 
ing winter, from the quantity of provisions 
laid in by the beavers for their winter stock. 

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The Ass, contemptibly as he is treated by 
some, if we can credit the following story, 
has had preferment shown liim for his skill 
in predicting thecbanges of the weather. 

Louis XI. king of France, having a most 
famous astrologer in his court, and intending 
one day to go a hunting, asked him, " Whe- 
ther it would be fair weather, or whether he- 
did not suspect it would rain ?'* who, having 
consulted his astrolade, answered, that " the 
day would be fair and serene." The king 
determined therefore to pursue his design : 
but having rode out of Paris, and coming 
near the forest, he met a collier driving his 
ass, laden with coals, who said, that " the 
king would do well to go back, because in a 
few hours there would be a great storm." 
But as what such people say is little regarded, 
the king made no account of it, but rode into 
the forest, and was no sooner there, but the 

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day grew ^rk, thunder and lightning came 
on, and the rain tell in such abundance, that 
everyone endeavouring to save himse]fl» the 
kinor was Idft alone, wlio had no recourse but 
to his horse's swiftness, to escape this misfor- 
tune. Tlie next day tlie kincj having sent 
for the collier, asked him, " Where he had 
learned astrologly?'* and " how he could so 
exactly tell what werther should happen?'* 
The collier answered, " Sir, I was never at 
school, and indeed I can ndither read nor 
write; nevertheless, I keep a good astrologer 
in my house^ who never deeeives^ me." The 
king bein^ amazed, asked him, " what was 
his astrologer's name?" Upon which, ^^e 
poor man, quite dbash^, answered, *^ Sir^^it 
is the ass your majesty yesterday m,w «ae 
driving, laden with coals: as soon as bad 
weather is coming, he hangs down his ears 
forward, and walks more slowly than usual^ 
and rubs himself against the walls : by these 
Signs, Sir, I certainly forsee i^ain, which was 
the reason that yesterday I advised your mA* 
jesty to return home." The king hearing 
this, cashiered his astrologer, and gave a small 
salary to the collier, tliat he might i»ake 
much of his ass, and said, with an oftth^that 
" for the future the collier's wis shouM be 
his astrologer." 

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The Swine, to*, have had a share of piiib* 
ILc attentioh s|iown them. One day while 
SBunteriiDg through Bartholomew tatr, oVLvAt^ 
t^iition was arrested bv a large piece of jcan- 
vas in front of one of the shows; on whicht 
w^a painted in conspicuous characters,— 




Although we are not desirous of visiting these, 
places of imposition and madness, we could 
not withstand the temptation of seeing the 
exhibition of this wonderful Pig ; and in con- 
sequence tJiereof, allowed ourselves to be 
bustled upstairs by the motley groups who 
were thronging there to see it. Most of the 
letters of the Roman alphabet, about two 
inchesvsfluare in size, with a few figures, were 
lai4 proipi^cuously on the floor, so as to form 
a circle. The keeper then desired the ani- 

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mal to paint out the letters he numed; which^ 
after having seen the circle, and viewed the 
whole with most attentive eye, he stopt, 
kneelt down on one of his knees, and held 
his nose close to the letter or figure required; 
Any of the company was desired to mention 
any ^ord for a trial of his knowledge of ortho- 
graphy — the word was spelt correctly. Some 
questions were put to him by the keeper, re- 
garding his knowledge of futurity, of hidden 
mysteries, &c. As to his prescience we can 
say but little: however, in answering any 
questions in which the ladies were implicated, 
he always made a stop opposite, and pointed 
to one of them. Wheri the question regarded 
gentlemen, it did the same to one of them. 
On the dismissal of the company, he knelt 
down on both knees, as in token of respectful 
gratitude to his audience. 

It istrue,all these signs of rational intellect 
might have been produced by private signals 
from the keeper to the pig; but admitting 
of this, does it not prove that they, the dul- 
lest, the most stupid, and unsocial of ahimals, 
to all appearance, possess something more 
than barely a mere machine, and may be 
taught many useful accomplishments? 

It is a fact that, a black New Forest sow 
was broken in, by Turner, the gamekeeper 

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to 1%* H. St. John Mildriiay, . to find game^ 
l^acky and stand, nearlj as well ts a pointeii 
Tfcis sow, which was a thin,longlegged ^nim^ 
^iy&e of dve ugliest ot' the New Forest breed^ 
when very young^conoeivecl a great partiality 
£&r some pointer puppies Turner was break- 
ing, so thai it played, and often came to &ed 
with them. From this circumstance, it oc-*- 
tnirred to Turner^ (to lase his own expression,) 
ithat, having broken many a dog as obstinate 
as a pig, he would also try if he could not 
succeed in breaking a pig. The little animal 
woqM often go orut with tfee puppies at some 
distance from home, and he enticed it fartha* 
by some puddii-ig, which he canied in his 
pocket, made of barley meal. The other pock*- 
et he filled wiih stones, which he threw at 
her when she misbehaved, as he was not able 
to catch and coiTect her as be did his dc^ 
He informed Sir Henry Mtldmay that he 
found the animal tractable, and that he soon 
taught her what he wished, by this mode of 
Inward and punishment. Sir Henry says, that 
he has frequently seen her out with Turner; 
when she quartered her ground as regularly 
as any pointer,stood whens^he cameongame, 
(having an excellent nose^) and backed other 
dogs as well as ever he saw a pointer. When 
^e^^came'on thecold seent bfgame> shedacd^ 

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^ed her trot, and gradually dropped down 
lier ears and tail, until she was certain, ancj 
then fell down on her knees: so staunch was 
she, that she would often remain five minutes 
Bnd upwards on her point As soon as the 
-game rose, ,ahe always returned to I'urner, 
punting very loudly for her reward of pud- 
ding, if it was not immediately given to" lier. 

To enter into a labourate description of 
the natures, properties, virtues, vices, natural 
propensities, and mechanical structure of the 
several parts of the brute creation, is not at 
present our intention; that having been so 
often, and so satisfactorily done already by 
many eminent naturalists and anatomist^, a- 
mong whom we may mention Pliny, AristotJcj^ 
and Ray. Our principal aim is, to refute the 
sophistical, dangerous, unfounded, unscrip- 
tural, and uncharitable opinion of bruies be- 
ing possessed by devils : that they are in gen- 
eral envious; or, that they finally perish at 
death, i. e. that they have no souls ; or, if 
they have, that they will be annihilated. 

We do not lay claim to infallibility, but 
liope, what has been said on this most impor- 
tant and interesting subject, will need no 
•stronger arguments to convince those, even 
of the least understanding, the absurdity of 
such doctrine as Father Bougeaut wishes to 

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mstil into the minds of the sober and test 
suspecting part of mankind. 

From the greater part of the preceding 
arguments, many borrowed from real life 
and actual observation, with the few anec- 
dotes of their abilities, and attachment to the 
human species, can it be insisted upon by the 
most strenous disciples of Descartes, that 
brutes are mere machines, and have no souls? 
Certainly not. That they have the power 
of reasoning, to a certain degree, in their 
own mind, and that they possess memory 
and a sentient principal cannot be deniea, 
even niore so than many who can boast of 
the human form : for, if we offend a dog in 
the le^^st, twelve months time will not eradi- 
cate from his memory the sense of the injury 
he received, but will retaliate, and take re- 
venge by some means or another. He will 
also know his proper owner from among his 
other keepers, although the master never 
was in the practice of feeding or minding 
him. A dog will also start in This sleep when 
dreaming, and seem to be much concerned 
about something which he cannot explain; 
which is a further proof of his having a soid, 
(as dreaming is an act of the soul,) and if a 
soul, it must be immaterial^ and if immater- 
Jal, consequently immortal ! 

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^ An instance of meraorif in tiik horse, hi^ 
pened within our own observation a shori 

'A farmer leading one Qf bis hors^ across 
a small temporary stone bridge, the weight 
of the horse caused an opening to ti^l^e place 
between the stones of the bridge, where one 
of the horses feet went through and wa^ sq 
wedged in, a^s to be with difficulty got out 
Qgain. About nine months after,, the horse 
had occasion to be led the same way, butal| 
the threafs and arts of the le^er could not 
make him pass over the bridge, so that he 
had to turn back and cross a ford at spme 
distance from theplace^which he did wilUnglyii 

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» . After admitting of these resMsoning powers 
i and faculties, which brutes possess, (some of 
them in no ordinary degree,) they must there- 
fore, undoubtedly, proceed from soniething 
IMMATERIAL, for we deny the power of think- 
ing to matter, i. e. material substance. It 
is true, a machine may be made to imitate 
many of the human as well as brute actions, 
and may be made, with the assistance of wind. 
t0 utter many sounds not discordant, but fa- 
miliar to the ears of those unaccustomed liv- 
ing near wild beasts, but never can be made 
tQ think, or reflect on past, present, or future. 
Therefore, can We think, or be made to be- 
lieve tliat, that lj>finite and merciful Father 
who has endowed them with such superior 
abilities, and made them to be I appy in their 
primary state, would deprive them of that 
happiness, by an utter extinction of their 
being? Or, could we, for a moment, suppose 
that,the poor frightened hare, &e. which once 
enjoyed a place in Paradise, was now only to 
continue for a few days in existence; and these 
few days too to be miserably hunted and des-. 
pitefully torn, then falji a victim to the cruel- 
ty of some rapacious and blood-thirsty tyrant, 
whose only happiness is when their hands 

^ t . 

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lire einbrewed in the blood of the slatD^^ 

* In reiuliiig t^^f tte list of gtae certificates in Aberdeen- 
shire for ^B prestot year^e find no less than four ft ^verends 
who have paid a licence for the libierly of vtenting dieircnidty 
on thd«e hairmless and defencehsss part df biUr adorned creation 
that chance td be io unfbrttmate as^ to fidl kl their Way. How 
unsuitable is such an employment for the title of rererend^ and 
the followers of the harmless and hely> thto meek and lowly 
Jesus ? Thiv Jteii»> f#hom Mich pretend te serve,) while on 
earth, went i^ut doing good: yet f<nr all his parental, and 
friendly labours in cause of poor perishing sinners, and even 
in the middt of hiMffiiction, bad no iv^te to lay his head* — ^He 
ftras a miii of sMtiolirtt and veqaamted w^ grttf : while th^ 
whd boast df being his servants and disciples, are wallowing ia 
luxury wid ease ; although we dr6 e^cprebly told by tmr flfiiii' 
our that, dienervairt is iiot ^b^ his inasl^, noir tlie diaciplt 
Itbove bis Lordv How different were the Uves which tl^se 
Apostles and Fathers of the primitive Church led, to that of 
many of the medelm prdfefesm^ of ChHstianity ?^*-T^ey sidfeir- 
^ hunger smd thir^, pfliA «Ad Wi^tdiMnessv AervonfUMl scon^ 
banishment and shipttrreck,iBmrisonment andmicknesbjand evea 
death itself, in every shape the cruelty of their pctsecutm^ 
could devise, for the gMrJr oPdieir Lord find Mastet*. AndJPialy 
afber he had undk^tgonesdl the hardships man is ci^pcd^ of s^ 
fering in this life, and all the miserv of human degradation, 
wished himself accursed, that those DOund with the dudds ef 
isatan might be fre^. 

Dare we call those w&e go-about spending their time in die 
idle and wanton pursuit of the field, or transitory pleasures of 
the world, servants of God, or faithftil pastors of a fibeepTi^ 
whtli^ the enemy is prowling around its gatest, ledcMg whom 
he mi^ devoUr ? The tree is known by its fruit, and a gclod 
and just servant attends to the will andcommands of his master, 
and surely cruelly mangling the body, and wantonly depriimg 
the inoffensive of llfe> is no where to be found in sciptore; lor 
the Poet says, — ' ? 

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and at last h^ subjected to annihflation, witibf 
out any remead? Or, could we be made tp 
believe thatf the innocent suckling lamb^ 

T^e not ^W9y \hf life you ct^ifuU give. 
For all things hav^ an equal right to life. . 

Tbt now immortal Plato W4s ^Mrare of this ; and to lengthen 
life, and soflen the rigours of its severity, he used to attend the 
^a^«rniea when they came hb shoce with tkeir neUs and wh^t 
fish they bad a^vs he puccbpkst^ th^Rt that he migUt set tbem 
free — He did the same with all the birds and beasf^s that came 
kihisway, and enJQined.his disciples to follow his^pious example* 
SbaUy t^efiixe, a Bj6atbe9 oMt4o % C^fi^tjaPy a|i4 ^nly a 
teacher 0( Chw^iws^ in wt?*af b^lPWit^y ^n^ jmerpy ?— Let 11 
not then be said, for tl^e honour of Christianity, for the honour 
^t^t eountiy w6idi has-bpen se instrumental i^ spreading its 
gifd Q^Uqgs to^fo9#ign hfV^h thf^ it will b^ miore tolerable fqr 
^ He^thf n Phil!(Mlopber} in the dfty pf ^he Lord's visitation, than 
for those who profess to be seryant&and followers of Jesus. 

We wiM only, ^ere^fove, fasesume to suggest a few bi^U tp 
tbfise r&verond ^eptlei^An who ta)i:e pleasure in nqbbj^ig.them- 
aelves of their most psecious, and most invaluable jew^l» time ; 
for a momentary gratification, in sporting with the lives and 
miseries of the innocent ; — ^to take the price of their game cer« 
tifi£ate» of ihfiir guofi. and dogs* ftod th^ ath^r e^jiences thus 
laid out- for the destruction of the inoffensive, and give to those 
fMor fmfiucmtn^ ^% ^m^ prpii(4iy pi^g in ws^f^, would 
J>e glad to eat of tba ccu«ib« that fall fram their tables.'^Were 
jdHsy n§bll(|r ^ c«Dsid»r tbe fuitiless oondili^a ^the helpless 
.«B<l<fiidMrlfist ;Q0qphaar^i^ii(€^iiig d^M^ 
Mmm BMrnlf immi ef ltfie*s«rMt r^ddy 4k<^^ forgets be^t 
alB toMUmed around i^^i4h« lo^e, ibe Ifm, ^ ch?erless» and 
iMmaeksamcbw, whose. i»isy£bA9k 9ap U^i^ched a snowy 
(wUte^ juddkmowsdiwiA «mb^ a tear ; 4he briny tears that fall 
-fiwDbooBasiQua. love, and retroapACitiQn; thi^ipride of other year^: 
•.^e infirm and hoary head^ HbflSft.fitrftggUng but silvery lo^kiS 

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"bleating beneath the savage hand that holds 
the drawn knife to rob it of its existence, be- 
fore it has even tasted one single drop of the 
comforts of life, will in this manner perish 
forever? No: the philanthropic breast of 
humanity forbids it. — It shall rise again, and 
liberally partake of the sweets of the new 
creation, to which its cruel oppressor will no 
doubt be an utter stranger ! Is it not enough 
that, in their short live's peregrination on 
earth, they should suffer misery, without be- 
ing an accomplice of the guilt from which it 
sprung? — Why deny them a hope of reward 
hereafter, which is but justly due to the in- 
nocent. Surely that mercy which extends 
over all the other parts of nature's fair crea- 
tion, never made tne brute part to be miser- 
able here without a just and equivalent re- 
ward hereafter ! — Are their bodies not made 

betray in their possessor the winter of age> and eyes dimed 
with many years gone by. » Were the sporting reverends to 
make these objects of pity> their objects of compassion, they 
would find mere pleasure in hunting them out of their solitary 
places, their desolate and roofless cottages, into places more 

' congenial to the feelings of a philanthropic mind. One hour 
thus spent, in relieving the needy, in bindii^ the broken heart, 
and, in administering the healing balm (n consolation to a 
wounded soul, would be worth thousands spent in the destruc- 

^ve and cruel sports of the field. 

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formed from the duist of the eartlHM wall as 
they ?— We call many of them carnivourous, 
and hate them^upcm tliai aecoufiti: but are 
we not as> ipuch. so a^ they ? Ate we not all 
of ui^9in some degree, (some more, some less,) 
f»npilsM|l J^»?*^Do we vpt d^vcrtw. the. bodies of 
Qii^;«jpothfff, althougji not in si«db a. direct 
manneFt . M wall ^ j they?/ How often have 
we^ se^n sh^iepf luad catUe of difiereot. kiods, 
j^dir^ i» cwrt^ry cburch-^vards* and such 
pi^fQs*w}*ere^th« remaina of the dead.a,re de- 
^wHedf andfon the veiy bodies of.ow: ancesr 
tors? — Do we not partake freely of. theser 
%liiniHb afterwards, without the least hqsita- 
ti'Qi^? i\md, arp: not the iqhajbitaiits of sooie 
dJ^iMi>t parte of the world, ip a direct sense, 
^fiAW caftoibaJsP-^-^Da tbey pot devour and 
e^,one;anQtli«r, partioujarly those who a^e 
W>*u»6>rtUttate 9^tQ fall into their bands, as 
Bl^ifKHi^s of wa^? But they will not be anni-r 
fclated'fwthisino: th^y n)«.^t! all rise again, 
(^khoi^ not the 4i^f same body,) when the 
niftssenger<¥)Hi05'to smnmpttthera before the 
G^tp^ Tribwwl on the day of restitution* 

A^in^ m a more direct view of this sy- 
stj^j are there not. tiiousanck in J3ritam, 
^9id the- i^la^Kls thewto belonging,, wholly 
Afntfi^Q^ a«d ^ by hw»an bodice, by their 

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simply being metamorphosed into those (^ 
fishes? &C. 

Where is the dust that has not been iJive? 
The spade, the plough^ disturb our aneestors; 
From human mould we reap our daily bread* 


The learned and wise preacher also says, in 
Eccl. in. 20, All go unto one place; all are 
of the dust, and all turn to dust again. 

While we are still upon this subject, it may 
not be improper to give the^opinion of a most 
intelligent man, (who once kept a consider- 
able part of the world in awe,^ respecting 
lower animals. 

There is a link between animals and the 
Deity. — Man, (added he,) il merely a more 
perfect animal than the rest.\ He reasons 
better. But how do we know that anim&ls 
have not a language of their own ? My opin- 
ion is, that it is presumption in ns to say soi 
because we do not understand them. A horse 
has memoi y, knowledge and love. He knows 
his master from the servants though the lat* 
ler are more constantly with him. I had a 
horse myself, who knew me from any other 
person, and manifested, by capering and 

froudly marching with his head erect, when 
was on his hack, his knowledge that he bore 
a person superior to the others by whom be^ 

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was sunDunded. — Neither would he aUoiw 
any other person to mount him, except ose 
groom who constantly took care of him ; and 
when rode by him, his motions were fer .dif- 
ferent, and such as seemed to say$ that he 
was conscious he bore an inferior. When T 
lost my way 9 1 was accustomed to throw, the 
reint^down his. neck, and heal ways discovered 
it in places where I, with all my observation 
and bdasted superior knowledge, could not. 
Who can deny the i^gacity of dogs? There's, 
a link between all animals. Plants are sp 
many animals which eat luid drink ; and there 
are gradations up to man^ who is only the 
aoEiost perfect of them aU. The same spirit 
animates them all in a greater or lesser de^- 

We may also add to the above,— -The 
wonderful prudence, foresight, &c* of the re- 
publicx)f beavers, in a state of social compact, 
with an overseer at their head, each exeats 
h4s powers and contributes his exertions in 
raising the mole, and forming with care the 
to&ti&ed settlement. What sagacity does the 
elephant discover as he discharges the wMer 
irom his mighty trunk, in order to cool him- 
self in midst of tlie burning plains of Caffiaria! 

Who knows not the affectionate tenderness 
of the dog; the mischievous . cunning of the 

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oM>in imtebingihfiii pm3^Bnd^t^'9iihild 90iit 
jfiwfit ofiths^ham, iQveIiiida^J!Mer.pkia9ti«iii^v 

TW Uon) a(fe wltMiseKtifaepiBiidvMAa^rQtrf e^^ 
tto^^fiiegi M i$ kacmtng iket iBBroniklUdkLhii 
fewlets focmin^Dttrtt^luEMreoQiiriiii'to^^ 
Mui^watehes his (pra^iiirjaiitbiisb* im th^ neiglife- 
bourhoecl of tltosejqb iiiig«&aRd^a*enrtejRihidi 
^A^^ mustneoesurilyi cometOfqiienil^ ^eir 
thirst-«<-^TheheMyiD .atttiimD^.beUdbiftiha^ 
tahU winter ^juarfcera^mw venturesraJbroilflltill 
spring kMagain peiwimfil the face^ofttiefieartk 
*^The Chamoiis G^ab; wiien* closeljr purmed 
in his^mcwntainoufr retreat^ .witt«uddenly rB»- 
bound on^thehuntsman^ and prdoipita|:e htm 
O¥ertheM0l&,-«*The hed^hogitimobtiHKrapfi 
himself up in his mossy nest.-^The porcupiQ^ 
, when almost overtaken in the piuHuit^ on a 
imdden rolla himself pp, and prefentaLtofais 
anti^SOnist) insteadof adeliciousiBoiBehahaU 
ofpricklw^: and ^ the armadillo^ act u^ed'bj 
some unerring impulse, joiiiji hiscea^mities 
beneath hi» slieiUy covteriiigyandroUsoHercthe 
precipiae unhurt, tathe confusion atlkdaMi^ 
:my> Botthi^ ia ih>I all-^Horseainikatateof 
nature are not only said tokeep aoentiinelofi 
the out look.but wiien^aU^cked, joiu head^to- 
gellier and li-jbt with their hdels.«r»Oxefi in 
a 8imLi>ir ^tate, joik tails togeUiQi;^aiJid fight 

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117 . 

tWith their ht)rns.-~Swine get together in im- 
penetrable herds to resist the attack,; and - 
what is observable in all they pl^ce the young 
in the middle, and keep them safe in the day 
of battle. 

The combination of these rational qualities, 
and the sources from which they spring, 
made many of the parly and learned fathers, 
firmly believe in the immortality of the 
SOULS OP BRUTES, and considered themselves- 
well warranted by scripture and reason so to 
do. Le Clerc seems, to have been of this, 
opinion ; for, in a note to Grotius's " Truth 
of the Christian Religion," he corrects Gro- 
tius thus: — -" No, {says Le Clerc,) they are 
done, by the soul of those beasts, which 
reasonable, as to be able to do such things, 
and not others. Otherwise God himself 
would act in them instead of a soul, which e 

food philosopher will hardly be persuaded of. 
fotbing hinders but that there may be a great 
many ranks of sensible and intelligent natures 
Ae lowest of which may be in the bodies of 
brute creatures ; for nobody, I think, really 
believe with Descartes, that brutes are merely 
corporeal machines. But you will say, when 
brut^ creatures die, what beconiesof tjiesoul? 
That indeed I know »ot, but it is nevierth^ 
less true that souls reside in them. . There is 

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no nec^flsHj thU W6 ahouM know »1I thingi, 
wmxr are we Aerefc>re presently to deny emy' 
thing because we cannot give account of it. 
We are to receiye those things that are evi- 
dent, and be content to be ignorant of those* 
things which we cannot know.** 

In some passages of scrifrture) there islittle 
distinction made between man and beast, 9S 
EccL in. ift, Fordiat whidi befalleth the 
sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing 
foe^edleth them : as the o^e dietk, so dfeth the 
olher; yea they have all one breath; ^o that 
a man hatli liAtle pre-^eminenee over a bfiisdb. 
AH go unto one pta6e,aI1 are of the dust* anid 
all turn to d»at again. We are ^ho informed 
* by the evangelist St John, thatiie bcsheiid is 
a visloni, vhile in the Isle of PatB^oSt beaab 
before the throne of God, giving glory» amd 
honour, attd thanks^ to kum that sat oa the 
tlirone j who Iwetk for ever ami ev». Hev.rr.9* 

By way of leonclusion, we shall now mfy 
Skid a ^(km ieursory sesnarks an the foU^wing 
passages-^Ecd. mh Si, Who knowakhthte' 
spirit of «iian4:hat goeth npward^ an^ tl^iriptdlfc 
m ibeast ^hat goeth dowowajd to ihit rami? 
^salm Kus:. I'S, NevertkeiBSfl main bek^ in 
honour abkietdmot: he is likethe beasts that 
^rish. As these -flwo texts cbitain att thajt 
IS generally ^oSeted in opposctioa U> thit j 

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ceding atgtrtnents, we shall iconfine ourselves 
chiefly to them. 

The first text Indeed, shows there is a differ-^ 
ence between the sph-its or socils of men and 
the spirits of brutes^ and that they go toss** 
parate places j but it by no means proves that 
the spirit or soul of the beast will oe extinct^ 
an V more than that of man : and that tliey have 
Spirits, is plainly declared. Were we to sup^ 
pose that all the bodies of men that go to the 
earth were annihilated, we would be no better 
than Sadducees. It ca«inot therefore, in the 
least, imply extinction of being, bat only a 
separate place from that of men. 

The second text, is counted by ignorant 
people, an incontravertible proof that Set^ts 
perish ; which, by their acceptation, is anmfiit- 
ntion. — Learned theologists render it othei^ 
wise: and in no dictionary whatever, in a 
scriptural sense, has it this signification. The 
true explanation of it is thus : To run info cfe- 
cay, or ruin; to be cut oj^ to be fdlled^ and to 
die; yet, the literal meaning of the word is 
Very simple: it is compounded of per ^ by or 
through ; and eo, I go ; and signifies no m&9e 
than passing out qf sight. Soj ib If^aiah lvu.I, 
The righteous perisheth,^«isifM^ p^'mf. 'I'hus it 
signifies to be remot^et/ by death f topas^iU of 
sight intothe invisible world,orparadiseof God 

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The original word is compounded of aV9 ^ 
intensive^ and ollymi or ollyo, to destroy^ to. 
Mlli to lose: hence, the word apollymi. sig- 
nifies to be lUterly losl^ not implying any e^^ 
Unction of beinfjcy but by t\\e rendenng thai 
being useless; totally defeating ^the end and 
purpose of life. 

This, undoubtedly, is the true signification 
of the passage just quoted; for,inthecontextt 
it is said, the wise men die, likewise the fool 
and the brutish person perish. Are we then 
to suppose from this, that fools, &c. are an- 
jiihilaled at death? — ceitainly not! ^ 

We shall now only offer a few more brief 
observations on the meaning of the word 
perish^ and conclude. ,For instance, when a 
person speaks of a ship being lost at sea, and 
every soul on board perished, (which is the 
common expression,) no one supposes that 
their souls will be extinct forever. Nor does 
a person who says that such a man and his 

horse have perished in the river , or iri 

the snow, mean, nor does he wish the hearers 
to infer from his saving so, that they are to 
he annihilated^ — truly not! 

Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive 
glory, and honour, ami power: for thou hast 
created all things, andjbr thy pleasure they 
are and were created. • 


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